Dicaelus purpuratus, copyright Betsy Betros.

Belongs within: Harpalinae.
Contains: Lacordairia.

The Licinini are a cosmopolitan group of ground beetles characterised by a deep notch on the labrum. At least some are molluscivorous and this may be characteristic of the group as a whole (Ball & Bousquet 2001).

Characters (from Ball & Bousquet 2001): Head with two supraorbital setigerous punctures over each eye; clypeus with dorsal surface concave, deflected, meeting labrum at obtuse angle; anterior margin of clypeus concave; basal margin of labrum normally exposed, apical margin of labrum more or less deeply incised, resulting lobes more or less asymmetrical; mandible without setigerous punctures; maxillary palpomere 4 about subequal in length to palpomere 3; elytron without internal plica; middle coxal cavities conjunct (entirely enclosed by sterna), mesepimera not extended to middle coxal cavities.

<==Licinini [Licininae]M80
    |--+--+--Eutogeneius fuscusOM08
    |  |  `--LestignathinaOM08
    |  |       |--LacordairiaOM08
    |  |       `--Lestignathus Erichson 1842LM87
    |  |            |--*L. cursor Erichson 1842LM87
    |  |            |--L. foveatus Sloane 1920LM87
    |  |            `--L. simsoni Bates 1878LM87
    |  `--Dicrochile Guérin-Méneville 1846OM08, LM87 (see below for synonymy)
    |       |--*D. goryi (Boisduval 1835) (see below for synonymy)LM87
    |       |--D. brevicollis Chaudoir 1852 [=Dicronochilus brevicollis]LM87
    |       |--D. gigas Castelnau 1867LM87
    |       |--D. idae Moore 1985LM87
    |       |--D. minuta Castelnau 1867LM87
    |       |--D. punctatostriata Castelnau 1867LM87
    |       |--D. punctipennis Castelnau 1867LM87
    |       |--D. punctulata Sloane 1923LM87
    |       |--D. quadricollis Castelnau 1867LM87
    |       `--D. ventralis Blackburn 1891LM87
    `--+--Licinus Fabricius 1802OM08, L02
       |    |--L. agricolaR26
       |    |--L. cassideus [=Carabus cassideus]L02
       |    |--L. emarginatus [=Harpalus (Licinus) emarginatus]G20
       |    |--L. punctatulus [=Carabus punctatulus]L02
       |    `--L. silphoides (Rossi 1790)BB01
       `--Dicaelina [Rhembidae, Submerini]OM08
            |--Diplocheila Brullé 1834 (see below for synonymy)BB01
            |    |  i. s.: ‘Rhembus’ aegyptiacusB89
            |    |         ‘Rhembus’ gigasB89
            |    |         ‘Eccoptogenius’ moestus Chaud. 1852 [=Rhembus moestus]B89
            |    |         ‘Rhembus’ opacus Chaud. 1852B89
            |    `--D. (Isorembus)BB01
            |         |--D. (I.) obtusa (LeConte 1848)BB01
            |         |--D. (I.) oregona (Hatch 1951)BB01
            |         `--D. (I.) striatopunctataBB01
            `--Dicaelus Bonelli 1813BB01
                 |  i. s.: D. ambiguusOM08
                 |         D. dilatatusBB01
                 |--D. (Dicaelus) purpuratus Bonelli 1813BB01
                 |    |--D. p. purpuratusB14
                 |    `--D. p. splendidusB14
                 |--D. (Liodicaelus Casey 1913)BB01
                 |    `--D. (L.) laevipennisBB01
                 `--D. (Paradicaelus Ball 1959)BB01
                      `--D. (P.) furvusBB01
Licinini incertae sedis:
  Microferonia Blackburn 1890M80, LM87
    |--*M. adelaidae Blackburn 1890LM87
    |--M. anchomenoides (Macleay 1871) [=Badister anchomenoides, M. macleayi Csiki 1931]LM87
    |--M. cinctipennis Sloane 1898LM87
    `--M. marginata (Castelnau 1867) [=Lacordairia marginata]LM87
  Physoloesthus Chaudoir 1850M80, LM87 [=PhysolaesthusLM87]
    |--*P. australis Chaudoir 1850 [=Physolaesthus australis]LM87
    |--P. caviceps (Andrewes 1936) [=Badister caviceps]LM87
    |--P. grandipalpis Macleay 1871LM87
    |--P. insularis Bates 1878 [=Physolaesthus insularis]LM87
    |--P. pallidus Blackburn 1890 [=Physolesthus pallidus]LM87
    |--P. ruficollis Sloane 1900 [=Physolesthus ruficollis]LM87
    `--P. suturalis Castelnau 1867 [=Physoloestus suturalis]LM87

Dicrochile Guérin-Méneville 1846OM08, LM87 [=Dicronochilus (l. c.)LM87; incl. Stomatocoelus Macleay 1864LM87; Dicrochilina]

*Dicrochile goryi (Boisduval 1835) [=Rembus goryi; incl. *Stomatocoelus licinoides Macleay 1864, Dicrochile montana Castelnau 1867]LM87

Diplocheila Brullé 1834 [incl. Eccoptogenius Chaudoir 1852, Rembus Dejean 1826 non Germar 1824, Submera Habu 1956, Symphyus Nietner 1858]BB01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BB01] Ball, G. E., & Y. Bousquet. 2001. Carabidae Latreille, 1810. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr & M. C. Thomas (eds) American Beetles vol. 1. Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga, Polyphaga: Staphyliniformia pp. 32–132. CRC Press: Boca Raton.

[B89] Bates, H.-W. 1889. Contributions a la faune Indo-Chinoise. 3e mémoire. Carabidae. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 261–286.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LM87] Lawrence, J. F., B. P. Moore, J. E. Pyke & T. A. Weir. 1987. Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 4. Coleoptera: Archostemata, Myxophaga and Adephaga. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[M80] Matthews, E. G. 1980. A Guide to the Genera of Beetles of South Australia. Part 1. Archostemata and Adephaga. South Australian Museum: Australia.

[OM08] Ober, K. A., & D. R. Maddison. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of tribes within Harpalinae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as inferred from 28S ribosomal DNA and the wingless gene. Journal of Insect Science 8: 63.

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