Transverse section of stele of Stenomyelon tuedianum, from Scott (1923).

Belongs within: Tracheophyta.
Contains: Archaeopteridales, Lagenostomales, Apo-Spermatophyta.

The Lignophyta comprises the clade of wood-producing plants, defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the most inclusive clade characterised by a bifascial vascular cambium (a meristematic layer producing secondary xylem on the inner face and secondary phloem on the outer face) homologous with that of Pinus sylvestris. Synapomorphies of lignophytes also include a periderm-producing cork cambium, and cortical fibre strands (lost in most derived subgroups).

Heterospory characterises a clade excluding the basal Aneurophytales (Cantino et al. 2007). Aneurophytales include the earliest lignophytes known from the Middle Devonian (Cleal 1993a).

<==Lignophyta (see below for synonymy)
    |    |  i. s.: Rellimia Leclercq & Bonamo 1973SP12
    |    |         RhabdosporitesSP12
    |    |--Protokalon [Protokalonaceae]C93a
    |    |    `--P. petryi Scheckler & Banks 1971C93a
    |    |--Protopitys [Protopityaceae, Protopityales]C93a
    |    |    |--P. buchiana Göppert 1850C93a
    |    |    `--P. scotica Walton 1957C93a
    |    `--AneurophytaceaeC93a
    |         |--Protopteridium thomsonii (Dawson) Kräusel & Weyland 1933C93a
    |         |--Aneurophyton germanicum Kräusel & Weyland 1923C93a
    |         `--Tetraxylopteris schmidtii Beck 1957C93a
       |  `--ArchaeopteridalesSP12
                   `--Calamopityaceae [Calamopityales, Eurystomaceae]C93b
                        |--Diichnia kentuckiensis Read 1936C93b
                        |--Bostonia perplexa Stein & Beck 1978C93b
                        |--Alcicornopteris hallei Walton 1949C93b
                        |--Lyrasperma Long 1960FC07, C93b
                        |--Eurystoma Long 1960C93b
                        |--Dolichosperma Long 1961C93b
                        |    |--C. americana Scott & Jeffrey 1914C93b
                        |    `--C. foerstii Read 1936C93b
                        |    |--S. clavigera (Kidston) Walton 1928C93b
                        |    `--S. ettingshausenii (Feistmantel) Kidston 1923C93b
                             |--S. heterangioides Long 1964C93b
                             |--S. muratum Read 1936C93b
                             |--S. primaevum Long 1964C93b
                             `--S. tuedianum Kidston ex Kidston & Gwynne-Vaughan 1912C93b
Lignophyta incertae sedis:
  Genselia uberisVA01
    |--E. eocaenicus (Selling) Yi & Batten 2002 [=Schizaea eocaenica Selling 1944]YB02
    |--E. huanghuaensis Ke & Shi 1978YB02
    |--E. irregularis Herngreen 1973I02
    |--E. jansonii (Pocock) Muller 1968YB02
    |--E. multicostatus Brenner 1963YB02
    |--E. multipartitus (Chlonova) Gao & Zhao 1976YB02
    |--E. ovalis Muller 1968I02
    `--E. praeclarus (Chlonova) Yi & Batten 2002 [=Schizaea praeclara Chlonova 1961]YB02
  Cedripites parvus Norton in Norton & Hall 1969YB02
    |--P. inchoatus (Pierce) Norris 1967YB02
    `--P. mawsonii Cookson 1947RC02
  Pinuspollenites labdacusYB02
    |--P. l. f. labdacusYB02
    `--P. l. f. maximus Potonié 1958YB02
    |--P. ellipticusV12
    |--P. minutus Wang 1975YB02
    `--P. nageiaformis (Zaklinskaya) Takahashi 1964YB02
    |--R. convolutus Pierce 1961YB02
    |--R. reductus Pierce 1961YB02
    `--P. rugosus Pierce 1961YB02
  Crossia Beck & Stein 1993SS04, SP12
  Runcaria Stockmans 1968SP12
  Moresnetia Stockmans 1948SP12
    |    |--Discinites jongmansii Hirmer 1941C93a
    |    `--NoeggerathiaC93a
    |         |--N. acuminifissaG31
    |         |--N. kikkawaiG31
    |         |--N. westermannii [=Rhacophyton westermannii Gothan 1931]C93a
    |         `--N. zamitoides Sterzel 1918C93a
         |--Tingiostachya tetralocularis Kon’no 1929C93a
              |--T. partita Halle 1927C93a
              |--T. placida Tidwell 1967C93a
              |--T. subcarbonica Kon’no et al. 1971C93a
              |--T. trilobataC93a
              `--T. yichuanensis Feng et al. 1977C93a
  Cecropsis [Cecropsidaceae, Cecropsidales]C93a
    `--C. luculentum Stubblefield & Rothwell 1989C93a
  Rheoxylon Bancroft 1913CA04
  Hugeria japonicaA76

Lignophyta [Cycadophytanae, Gymnopermophyta, Lignophytia, Pan-Spermatophyta, Progymnospermida, Progymnospermophyta, Progymnospermopsida, Radiatopses]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A76] Aoki, J. 1976. Zonation of oribatid mite communities around Sesshogawara of Kusatsu, a spouting area of sulfurous acid gas, with description of two new species. Bulletin of the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Yokohama National University 2 (1): 177–186.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C93a] Cleal, C. J. 1993a. Pteridophyta. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 779–794. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C93b] Cleal, C. J. 1993b. Gymnospermophyta. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 795–808. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CA04] Creber, G. T., & S. R. Ash. 2004. The Late Triassic Schilderia adamanica and Woodworthia arizonica trees of the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA. Palaeontology 47: 21–38.

[FC07] Friis, E. M., P. R. Crane, K. R. Pedersen, S. Bengtson, P. C. J. Donoghue, G. W. Grimm & M. Stampanoni. 2007. Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seed with Gnetales and Bennettitales. Nature 450: 549–552.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[I02] Ibrahim, M. I. A. 2002. Late Albian-Middle Cenomanian palynofacies and palynostratigraphy, Abu Gharadig-5 well, Western Desert, Egypt. Cretaceous Research 23: 775–788.

[RC02] Riding, J. B., & J. A. Crame. 2002. Aptian to Coniacian (Early–Late Cretaceous) palynostratigraphy of the Gustav Group, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. Cretaceous Research 23: 739–760.

[SS04] Schneider, H., E. Schuettpelz, K. M. Pryer, R. Cranfill, S. Magallón & R. Lupia. 2004. Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature 428: 553–557.

[SP12] Steemans, P., E. Petus, P. Breuer, P. Mauller-Mendlowicz & P. Gerrienne. 2012. Palaeozoic innovations in the micro- and megafossil plant record: from the earliest plant spores to the earliest seeds. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 437–477. Springer.

[V12] Vajda, V. 2012. Fungi, a driving force in normalization of the terrestrial carbon cycle following the end-Cretaceous extinction. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 811–817. Springer.

[VA01] Vega, J. C., & S. Archangelsky. 2001. Austrocalyxaceae, a new pteridosperm family from Gondwana. Palaeontographica Abt. B 257: 1–16.

[YB02] Yi, S., & D. J. Batten. 2002. Palynology of Upper Cretaceous (uppermost Campanian-Maastrichtian) deposits in the South Yellow Sea Basin, offshore Korea. Cretaceous Research 23: 687–706.

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