Rough bindweed Smilax aspera, photographed by Carsten Niehaus.

Belongs within: Petrosaviidae.
Contains: Colchicaceae, Trillium, Melanthiaceae, Calochortus, Liliaceae.

The Liliales is a major clade within the monocotyledons, many species of which are significant garden plants. Many species are bulbous or rhizomatous herbs; others are climbers, such as the greenbriers Smilax and supplejacks Ripogonum. The Corsiaceae are small mycoheterotrophic herbs that lack chlorophyll, found in Australasia and South America. Campynema lineare, green mountain lily, is a small, somewhat grass-like herb with green flowers found in subalpine and alpine regions of Tasmania. Petermannia cirrosa is a wiry vine found in northeastern Australia, with prickly stems and more or less swollen tubers.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Storage fructans, chelidonic acid, steroidal saponins present; leaves elliptical, fine venation reticulate; inflorescence terminal; tepals large (sometimes small), free, tepal nectaries present; anthers extrorse; style often long, stigma capitate; ovules many/carpel, parietal tissue absent, nucellar cap present; perianth deciduous; tegmen with cellular structure; endosperm with thick pitted walls, hemicellulosic; mitochondrial sdh3 gene lost.

<==Liliales [Alstroemeriales, Smilaceae]
    |--Arachnitis [Corsiaceae]DS04
    |    `--A. unifloraDS04
    `--+--Campynema Labill. 1805CC87 (see below for synonymy)
       |    `--*C. lineare Labill. 1805 (see below for synonymy)CC87
       `--+--+--Petermannia [Petermanniaceae]DS04
          |  |    `--P. cirrosaDS04
          |  `--+--Luzuriaga Ruiz & Pav. 1802 (nom. cons.)DS04, ME70 [Luzuriagaceae]
          |     |    |--*L. radicansME70
          |     |    |--L. marginataME70
          |     |    `--L. parviflora (Hook. f.) Kunth 1850 (see below for synonymy)ME70
          |     `--+--ColchicaceaeDS04
          |        `--AlstroemeriaceaeDS04
          |             |--BomareaHE80
          |             |    |--B. edulisJ87
          |             |    `--B. multifloraHE80
          |             `--Alstroemeria L. 1762CC87
          |                  |--*A. pelegrina L. 1762CC87
          |                  |--A. aurea Graham 1833 [incl. A. aurantiaca Don in Sweet 1833]CC87
          |                  |--A. braziliensisT-W89
          |                  |--A. caryophyllaeaDS04
          |                  `--A. pulchella Linnaeus 1781 [incl. A. psittacina Lehm. 1830]CC87
             |  `--MelanthiaceaeDS04
             `--+--+--Philesia [Philesiaceae]DS04
                |  |    `--P. buxifoliaDS04
                |  `--Ripogonum Forster & Forster 1776DS04, ME70 [Ripogonaceae]
                |       |--*R. scandens Forster & Forster 1776ME70 (see below for synonymy)
                |       |--R. album [incl. R. mooreanum]B78
                |       |    |--R. a. var. albumB78
                |       |    `--R. a. var. leptostachyaB78
                |       |--R. discolorDS04
                |       |--R. elseyanumDS04
                |       `--R. fawcettianumB78
                   |  `--LiliaceaeSaaRai07
                        |--Majanthemophyllum petiolatum Weber 1851CBH93
                        `--Smilax [incl. Coprosmanthus]B78
                             |--S. aspera Linnaeus 1753PL04
                             |--S. australis [incl. S. elliptica, S. latifolia, S. spinescens]B78
                             |--S. bona-noxWM14
                             |--S. californicaH93
                             |--S. chinaN13
                             |--S. ecirrata [=S. ecirrhata (l. c.)]V72
                             |--S. glycyphyllaSC19
                             |--S. havanensisJ87
                             |--S. herbaceaH93
                             |--S. illinoensisV72
                             |--S. jamesiiH93
                             |--S. lanceifoliaD07
                             |--S. lasioneuraV72
                             |--S. mexicanaGJ09
                             |--S. ovalifoliaB78
                             |--S. papyraceaEN20
                             |--S. perfoliataBB07
                             |--S. rotundifoliaDS04
                             |--S. tamnoidesV72
                             |    |--S. t. var. tamnoidesV72
                             |    `--S. t. var. hispidaV72
                             `--S. zeylanicaSanRav07

Campynema Labill. 1805CC87 [=Campylonema Schultes & Schultes in Roemer & Schultes 1830 (nom. illeg.)CC87; CampynemataceaeDS04]

*Campynema lineare Labill. 1805 [=*Campylonema lineare (Labill.) Schultes & Schultes in Roemer & Schultes 1830; incl. Campynema pygmaeum Benth. 1873]CC87

Luzuriaga parviflora (Hook. f.) Kunth 1850 [=Callixene parviflora Hook. f. 1844, Enargea parviflora (Hook. f.) Skottsb. 1915; incl. C. melantha Col. 1885]ME70

*Ripogonum scandens Forster & Forster 1776ME70 [incl. Rhipogonum parviflorumC06, Smilax ripogonum Forst. f. 1786ME70]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[CC87] Clifford, H. T., J. G. Conran, J. B. Williams, R. J. F. Henderson, H. J. Hewson, E. M. Watson, G. J. Keighery, D. M. Churchill, I. R. H. Telford, A. Thongpukdee, N. H. Brittan, A. S. George, W. T. Stearn & T. D. Macfarlane. 1987. Liliaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 148–419.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[DS04] Davis, J. I., D. W. Stevenson, G. Petersen, O. Seberg, L. M. Campbell, J. V. Freudenstein, D. H. Goldman, C. R. Hardy, F. A. Michelangeli, M. P. Simmons, C. D. Specht, F. Vergara-Silva & M. Gandolfo. 2004. A phylogeny of the monocots, as inferred from rbcL and atpA sequence variation, and a comparison of methods for calculating jackknife and bootstrap values. Systematic Botany 29 (3): 467–510.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[GJ09] Gagné, R. J., & M. Jaschhof. 2009. Cecidomyiidae (gall midges). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–314. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[N13] Nadein, K. S. 2013. Febraina: a new subtribe of Alticini with cladistic analysis based on morphology (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae). Systematic Entomology 38 (3): 491–506.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[SaaRai07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[SanRav07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

[WM14] Wickett, N. H., S. Mirarab, N. Nguyen, T. Warnow, E. Carpenter, N. Matasci, S. Ayyampalayam, M. S. Barker, J. G. Burleigh, M. A. Gitzendanner, B. R. Ruhfel, E. Wafula, J. P. Der, S. W. Graham, S. Mathews, M. Melkonian, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, N. W. Miles, C. J. Rothfels, L. Pokorny, A. J. Shaw, L. DeGeronimo, D. W. Stevenson, B. Surek, J. C. Villarreal, B. Roure, H. Philippe, C. W. dePamphilis, T. Chen, M. K. Deyholos, R. S. Baucom, T. M. Kutchan, M. M. Augustin, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Tian, Z. Yan, X. Wu, X. Sun, G. K.-S. Wong & J. Leebens-Mack. 2014. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (45): E4859–E4868.


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