Spiny file shell Lima lima, copyright Hectonichus.

Belongs within: Pectinida.

The Limidae, file shells, are a group of bivalves with an ovate to subtrigonal shell that commonly live attached in fissures by byssal threads, though some species are able swimmers by flapping the valves.

|–Austrolima nimbifera M54
|–Ctenoides annulata (Lamarck 1819) MG-H11
|–Ctenostreon pectiniformis JB12, F71
|–Notolimea Iredale 1924 F27a
|    `–*N. australis [=Lima australis] F27a
|–Plicacesta Vokes 1963 DK08
|    `–*P. smithi (Sowerby 1888) DK08
|–Divarilima Powell 1958 P61
|    `–*D. sydneyensis (Hedley 1904) [=Lima sydneyensis] P61
|–Limaria MG-H11
|    |–L. fragilis (Gmelin 1791) MG-H11
|    `–L. hians GW02
|–Escalima Iredale 1929 P61
|    |–*E. murrayi (Smith 1891) P61, F27a (see below for synonymy)
|    `–E. regularis Powell 1955 P61
|–Palaeolima SB93
|    |–P. furcoplicata DX84
|    |–P. scabrosa G31
|    `–P. simplex (Phillips 1836) SB93
|–Plagiostoma Sowerby 1814 RC78
|    |–P. beyrichii TE01
|    |–P. giganteum Sowerby 1814 RC78
|    `–P. striata (Schlotheim 1820) KL04
|–Mantellum Adams & Adams 1858 F27a
|    |–*M. inflatum [=Ostrea inflata] F27a
|    |–M. basilanicum Ad. & Reeve 1850 [=Lima basilanica; incl. L. angulata Sowerby 1843 non Munster 1841] F27a
|    |–M. hians [=Ostrea hians] F27a
|    |–M. inconspicuum Marwick 1926 F27a
|    |–M. marwicki (Powell 1926) [=Lima marwicki] F27a
|    `–M. polynema (Tate 1886) [=Lima polynema] F27a
|–Limea Bronn 1831 F27a
|    |  i. s.: L. torresiana (Smith 1885) [=Limatula torresiana] H09
|    |         L. transenna Tate 1886 F27b
|    |–*L. (Limea) strigiliata (Brocchi 1814) [=Ostrea strigiliata] S98
|    `–L. (Pseudolimea Arkell in Douglas & Arkell 1932) S98
|         |–L. (*P.) duplicata (Sowerby 1827) [=Plagiostoma duplicata] S98
|         |–L. (P.) flabellulina (Darragh & Kendrick 1991) [=Pseudolimea flabellulina] S98
|         `–L. (P.) woodsi (Suter 1921) (see below for synonymy) S98
|–Limatula Searles Wood 1839 P61
|    |–*L. subauriculata P61
|    |–L. aupouria Powell 1937 P61
|    |–L. demiradiata Allen 2004 F05
|    |–L. jeffreysiana F27a
|    |–L. maoria Finlay 1927 P61
|    |–L. pygmaea (Philippi 1845) P61
|    |–L. strangei [=Lima strangei; incl. Lima jacksonensis] F27a
|    |–L. suteri (Dall 1908) P61
|    |–L. thalassae Allen 2004 F05
|    `–L. trulla Marwick 1926 F27a
|–Acesta B65
|    |  i. s.: A. angolensis [=Lima (Acesta) angolensis] B65
|    |         A. goliath [=Lima (Acesta) goliath] B65
|    |         A. patagonica [=Lima (Acesta) patagonica] B65
|    |–A. excavata PC11 [=Lima (Acesta) excavata B65, Ostrea excavata N79]
|    `–+–A. bullisi PC11
|       `–A. oophaga PC11
`–Lima Bruguière 1797 RC78
|–*L. lima (Linnaeus 1758) P61, F27a (see below for synonymy)
|–L. alata Roemer 1836 F27b
|–L. ‘alata’ Lycett 1850 non Roemer 1836 F27b
|–L. ales Finlay 1927 [=L. alata Hedley 1898 nec Roemer 1836 nec Lycett 1850] F27b
|–L. arcuata Sowerby 1843 H09
|–L. bassii [incl. L. colorata] H86b
|–L. bullata (Born 1780) F27a [=Ostrea bullata H09, Limatula bullata F27a]
|–L. crassa [incl. Limea sarsii Lovén 1846, Lima sarsii] N79
|–L. dieneri G31
|–L. elliptica PP64
|–L. fasciata (Linnaeus 1758) [=Ostrea fasciata] H09
|–L. hemphilli B56
|–L. hians (Gmelin 1791) R78
|–L. huttoni Suter 1914 [=L. multiradiata Hutton 1873 non Gabb 1868] F27b
|–L. inflata Lamarck 1819 H09
|–L. krotowi G31
|–L. laevigata McCoy 1844 F27b
|–L. levitesta Finlay 1927 [=L. laevigata Hutton 1873 non McCoy 1844] F27b
|–L. linguatula Lamarck 1819 H09
|–L. loscombei [=Radula loscombei] PP64
|–L. marlburiensis Woods 1917 F27a
|–L. mestayerae Marwick 1924 P61
|–L. multiradiata Gabb 1868 F27b
|–L. nimbifer Iredale 1924 MG-H11
|–L. orientalis [incl. L. dehiscens] C64
|–L. pacifica PC11
|    |–L. p. pacifica PC11
|    `–L. p. galapagensis PC11
|–L. palaeata H86a
|–L. paucisulcata H86a
|–L. pellucida WE63
|–L. permiana G31
|–L. retifera G31
|–L. scabra [incl. L. aspera, L. fragilis, L. glacialis] G79
|–L. striatoplicata G31
|–L. subauriculata N79
|–L. subovata U79
|–L. tenera H09
|–L. vulgaris (Link 1807) MG-H11
|–L. wacoensis Roemer 1852 W77
|–L. watersi Marwick 1926 F27a
`–L. zealandica Sowerby 1876 P61

Nomen nudum: Limea neozelanica A27

*Escalima murrayi (Smith 1891) P61, F27a [=Lima murrayi P61, Mantellum murrayi F27a; incl. Limea acclinis Hedley 1905 F27a, Limea acclinus (l. c.) F27a]

*Lima lima (Linnaeus 1758) P61, F27a [=Ostrea lima P61; incl. L. squamosa F27a, Pecten (Lima) squamosus G20, L. tetrica C64]

Limea (Pseudolimea) woodsi (Suter 1921) [=Lima (Limatula) woodsi, Lima (Limatula) huttoni Woods 1917 non L. huttoni Suter 1914] S98

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[B65] Boss, K. J. 1965. Note on Lima (Acesta) angolensis. Nautilus 79 (2): 54–58.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[DX84] Ding Y., Xia G., Duan C., Li W., Liu X. & Liang Z. 1984. Study on the early Permian stratigraphy and fauna in Zhesi district, Nei Mongol Zizhiqu (Inner Mongolia). Bulletin Tianjin Institure Geol. Min. Res. 10.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H86a] Hutton, F. W. 1886a. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[H86b] Hutton, F. W. 1886b. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[KL04] Klug, C. & A. Lehmkuhl. 2004. Soft-tissue attachment structures and taphonomy of the Middle Triassic nautiloid Germanonautilus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 49 (2): 243–258.

[M54] Macpherson, J. H. 1954. Molluscs (sea shells and snails). In: Willis, J. M. (ed.) The Archipelago of the Recherche pp. 55–63. Australian Geographical Society: Melbourne.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PC11] Plazzi, F., A. Ceregato, M. Taviani & M. Passamonti. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of bivalve mollusks: ancient radiations and divergences as revealed by mitochondrial genes. PLoS One 6 (11): e27147.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[R78] Reid, R. G. B. 1978. The systematic, adaptive and physiological significance of proteolytic enzyme distribution in bivalves. Veliger 20 (3): 260–265.

[RC78] Roth, B., & E. V. Coan. 1978. Nomenclatural notes on Hinnites giganteus (Gray). Veliger 20 (3): 297–298.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[TE01] Tong, J., & D. H. Erwin. 2001. Triassic gastropods of the southern Qinling Mountains, China. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 92: 1–47.

[U79] d’Urban, W. S. M. 1879. The Mollusca of Barents Sea, between Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemblia. Journal of Conchology 2: 88–94.

[WE63] Warmke, G. L., & D. S. Erdman. 1963. Records of marine mollusks eaten by bonefish in Puerto Rican waters. Nautilus 76 (4): 115–120.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

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