Phryganea grandis, copyright Ryszard.

Belongs within: Integripalpia.
Contains: Goeridae, Limnephilidae.

The Limnephiloidea are a clade of caddisflies in which the larvae bear a median horn-shaped process on the prosternum that ends in a glandular opening; adults have the dorsal tentorial arms developed and the male maxillary palp is turned upwards and usually has less than five segments (Ivanov & Sukatsheva 2002). The larva may may have single or branched gills on the abdomen. Larval cases are tubular and constructed of plant and/or mineral material.

Members include the Plectrotarsidae, a family endemic to Australia characterised by a mesoscutum bearing setose punctures arranged in two parallel bands mesally and two small groups posteriorly. The Phryganeidae are large caddisflies of the North temperate zone whose larvae construct cases from pieces of dead leaves arranged as rings or in a spiral. A clade including Goeridae, Limnephilidae and related families is characterised by a sclerotised anal opening in females, used for mate orientation and fastening during copulation (Ivanov & Sukatsheva 2002).

<==Limnephiloidea [Phryganeoidea]BZ-M04
| `--+--+--TaimyrelectronidaeGE05
| | `--Thremma McLachlan 1876BZ-M04 [Thremmatinae, UenoidaeGE05]
| | `--T. gallicum McLachlan 1880BZ-M04
| `--+--LimnephilidaeGE05
| `--ApataniaC01 [ApataniidaeGE05]
| `--A. majusculaC01
| `--BrachycentridaeGE05
| |--Micrasema McLachlan 1876BZ-M04
| | |--M. bactro Ross 1938R38
| | |--M. longulum McLachlan 1876BZ-M04
| | |--M. minimum McLachlan 1876BZ-M04
| | `--M. moestum (Hagen 1868)BZ-M04
| `--Brachycentrus Curtis 1834BZ-M04
| |--B. adoxusK01
| |--B. labialisRJ93
| |--B. maculatum (Fourcroy 1785)BZ-M04
| |--B. montanusK01
| |--B. nigrisomaWRM02
| `--B. subnubilusK01
| |--KokiriidaeGE05
| | |--KokiriaC79
| | |--Tanjistomella Neboiss 1974N83
| | | `--*T. verna Neboiss 1974N83
| | |--Taskiropsyche Neboiss 1977N83
| | | `--*T. lacustris Neboiss 1977N83
| | `--Taskiria Neboiss 1977N83
| | |--*T. austera Neboiss 1977N83
| | `--T. mccubbini Nebois 1977N83
| `--LepidostomatidaeGE05
| | i. s.: Palaeocrunoecia crenataRJ93
| | ArchaeocrunoeciaP92
| | ElectraulaxP92
| | ElectrocrunoeciaP92
| | ManiconeurodesP92
| | PalaeolepidostomaP92
| |--Crunoecia McLachlan 1876 [Theliopsychinae]BZ-M04
| | `--C. irroata (Curtis 1834)BZ-M04
| `--LepidostomatinaeBZ-M04
| |--Lepidostoma Rambur 1842BZ-M04
| | `--L. hirtum (Fabricius 1775)BZ-M04
| `--Lasiocephala Costa 1857BZ-M04
| `--L. basalis (Kolenati 1848)BZ-M04
`--+--BaissoferusIS02 [BaissoferidaeGE05]
| `--B. latusIS02
| |--Tasmania Jacquemart 1965N83
| |--Liapota Neboiss 1959N83
| | `--*L. lavara Neboiss 1959 [incl. Tasmania caparti Jacquemart 1965]N83
| |--Nanoplectrus Neboiss 1977N83
| | `--*N. truchanasi Neboiss 1977N83
| `--Plectrotarsus Kolenati 1848N83
| |--*P. gravenhorstii Kolenati 1848 [=P. gravenhorsti]N83
| |--P. minor Mosely 1953N83
| `--P. tasmanicus Mosely 1936N83
`--Phryganeinae [Phryganaeidae, Phryganeidae]GE05
|--Ptilostomis semifasciataKP19
`--Phryganea Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. albifrons Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. bicaudata Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. bilineata Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. bimaculata Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. bipunctataA99
|--P. filosa Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. flava Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. flavilatera Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. fusca Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. grandis Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. grisea Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. longicornis Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. nebulosa Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. nigra Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. phalaenoides Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. reticulataR26
|--P. rhombica Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. rhomboideaR26
|--P. striata Linnaeus 1758L58
`--P. waeneri Linnaeus 1758L58

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[BZ-M04] Bonada, N., C. Zamora-Muñoz, M. Rieradevall & N. Prat. 2004. Trichoptera (Insecta) collected in Mediterranean river basins of the Iberian Peninsula: taxonomic remarks and notes on ecology. Graellsia 60 (1): 41–69.

[C79] Craw, R. C. 1979. Generalized tracks and dispersal in biogeography: a response to R. M. McDowall. Systematic Zoology 28 (1): 99–107.

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Utivázlat [Reiseskizze]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. xii–xli. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[IS02] Ivanov, V. D., & I. D. Sukatsheva. 2002. Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813. The caddisflies (=Phryganeida Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 199–220. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[K01] Klapálek, F. 1901. Neuropteroidák [Neuropteroiden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 203–221. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[N83] Neboiss, A. 1983. Checklist and bibliography of the Australian caddis-flies (Trichoptera). Australian Society for Limnology Special Publication 5: 1–132.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[R38] Ross, H. H. 1938. Descriptions of new North American Trichoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (5): 117–124.

[WRM02] Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier & C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31 (1): 67–81.


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