Limnesiidae

Possible Tyrrellia, copyright Emile.

Belongs within: Neohydrachnidia.
Contains: Protolimnesia, Neomamersa, Limnesia.

The Limnesiidae are a diverse group of water mites of questionable monophyly. Larvae, where known, are parasites of culicomorph Diptera. The limnesiids are divided between several subfamilies of diverse appearance. One possibly monophyletic assemblage, including the Neomamersinae, Psammolimnesia, Nicalimnesia, Stygolimnesia, Protolimnesiinae and Mixolimnesia, includes small, elongate and well-sclerotised taxa. Conversely, Kawamuracarus is a genus of large, soft-bodied species found in interstitial habitats in the Holarctic region (Walter et al. 2009). The cosmopolitan Limnesiinae have a globular to egg-shaped idiosoma with ring-like genital flaps in males formed from fusion of the anterior and posterior margins.

Characters (from Walter et al. 2009): Adults with palpfemur, with extremely rare exceptions, bearing ventral seta; all females, and males of many genera, with genital acetabula borne on movable genital flaps. Larvae with cheliceral bases fused; two pairs of urstigmata borne distally between coxal plates I-II; legs with five movable segments; tibiae I-II bearing seven to eight setae (and two solenidia), including only three ventral setae, lacking either Ti8 and Ti9 or Ti10 and Ti11.

<==Limnesiidae
    |  i. s.: GuanacastacarusG07
    |         Heterolimnesia Lundblad 1941H98
    |           `--H. tasmanica Lundblad 1941H98
    |--Epallagopus [Epallagopodinae]WL09
    |    `--E. tecticoxalisWL09
    |--Psammolimnesia Cook 1974S86 [PsammolimnesiinaeWL09]
    |    |--P. costarriquena Cook 1980S86
    |    `--P. mexicana Cook 1974S86
    |--Rheolimnesia Lundblad 1953 [Rheolimnesiinae]RFF05
    |    |--R. motasi Lundblad 1953RFF05
    |    |--R. placibilis (Gerecke 1995)RFF05
    |    `--R. tronchonii Orghidan & Gruia 1983RFF05
    |--+--Nicalimnesia Cook 1967S86 [NicalimnesiinaeWL09]
    |  |    `--N. andha Cook 1967S86
    |  `--Stygolimnesia Imamura 1979S86 [StygolimnesiinaeWL09]
    |       |--S. baderi Imamura 1983S86
    |       `--S. japonica Imamura 1979S86
    |--Neotorrenticola Lundblad 1936RFF05 [NeotorrenticolidaeWL09]
    |    |--N. bidens Lundblad 1953RFF05
    |    |--N. chorreronica Gruia 1988RFF05
    |    |--N. crassipes Lundblad 1953RFF05
    |    |--N. papillata Lundblad 1953RFF05
    |    |--N. plumipes Lundblad 1953RFF05
    |    |--N. sima Viets 1953RFF05
    |    |--N. violacea Lundblad 1936RFF05
    |    `--N. walteri Lundblad 1953RFF05
    |--Mixolimnesia Cook 1988RFF05 [MixolimnesiinaeWL09]
    |    |--M. aranda Cook 1988RFF05
    |    |--M. aspida Cook 1988RFF05
    |    |--M. beschi Cook 1988RFF05
    |    |--M. eremita Cook 1988RFF05
    |    |--M. lemba Cook 1988RFF05
    |    |--M. magnifica Cook 1988RFF05
    |    |--M. pallida Cook 1988RFF05
    |    `--M. ribagai Cook 1988RFF05
    |--Kawamuracarus Uchida 1937S86 [KawamuracarinaeWL09]
    |    |--K. chappuisi Motas & Tanasachi 1946S86
    |    |--K. elongatus Uchida 1937S86
    |    |--K. expansipes Cook 1980S86
    |    |--K. longisetus Cook 1963S86
    |    |--K. novus Cook 1980S86
    |    |--K. polyporus Cook 1967S86
    |    |--K. serratipalpis Cook 1963S86
    |    |--K. similis Cook 1967S86
    |    |--K. uniscutatus Cook 1967S86
    |    `--K. vardaricolus Viets 1943S86
    |--ProtolimnesiinaeWL09
    |    |--ProtolimnesiaWL09
    |    |--Siboneyacarus Orghidan 1975S86
    |    |    `--S. sordidus Orghidan 1975S86
    |    |--Crenolimnesia Lundblad 1938RFF05
    |    |    `--C. placophora Lundblad 1938RFF05
    |    |--Limnesides Lundblad 1936RFF05
    |    |    `--L. epimeratus Lundblad 1936RFF05
    |    `--Mixdea Orghidan & Gruia 1980WL09, S86 [Mixdeinae]
    |         |--M. (Mixdea) composita Orghidan & Gruia 1980S86
    |         `--M. (Tubomixdea Cook 1981)S86
    |              |--M. (T.) botosaneanui Cook 1981S86
    |              `--M. (T.) voldroguea Cook 1981S86
    |--NeomamersinaeWL09
    |    |--NeomamersaWL09
    |    |--ArizonacarusWL09
    |    `--Meramecia Cook 1963RFF05
    |         |--M. (Meramecia)S86
    |         |    |--M. (M.) anisitsipalpis Cook 1963S86
    |         |    |--M. (M.) mexicana Cook 1980S86
    |         |    |--M. (M.) ocularis Cook 1963S86
    |         |    `--M. (M.) perplexa Cook 1963S86
    |         |--M. (Parameramecia Smith & Cook 1994)RFF05
    |         |    `--M. (P.) saltensis Fernández 2001RFF05
    |         `--M. (Submeramecia Cook 1980)RFF05
    |              `--M. (S.) diamphida Cook 1980RFF05
    |--TyrrellinaeWL09
    |    |--Neotyrrellia Lundblad 1938RFF05
    |    |    |--N. anitahoffmannaeWL09
    |    |    |--N. petricola Lundblad 1938RFF05
    |    |    |--N. polypora Lundblad 1953RFF05
    |    |    `--N. recurva Lundblad 1953RFF05
    |    `--Tyrrellia Koenike 1895RFF05
    |         |--T. australis Besch 1962RFF05
    |         |--T. circularisWP99
    |         |--T. crenophila Lundblad 1938RFF05
    |         |--T. longipes Cook 1980RFF05
    |         |--T. noodti Besch 1962RFF05
    |         |--T. petrophila Viets 1977RFF05
    |         `--T. solivaga Cook 1980RFF05
    `--LimnesiinaeWL09
         |--LimnesiaWL09
         |--FijilimnesiaWL09
         |--Physolimnesia Halik 1940WL09, H98
         |    `--P. australis Halik 1940 [incl. Limnesia trituberculata Viets 1955]H98
         |--Timmsilimnesia Viets 1984WL09, H98
         |    `--T. prehendens Viets 1984H98
         |--Acantholimnesia Viets 1954RFF05
         |    `--A. millepora Viets 1954RFF05
         |--Tubophorella Viets 1978RFF05
         |    |--T. amoena Viets 1978H98
         |    |--T. australis Imamura 1984H98
         |    `--T. multiacetabulata Fernández 1992RFF05
         `--Centrolimnesia Lundblad 1935RFF05
              |--C. bondi Lundblad 1935RFF05
              |--C. boopis Gerecke, Fisher-Hartig & Steinitz-Kannan 1996RFF05
              |--C. geijskesi Besseling 1949RFF05
              |--C. geniculata Lundblad 1938RFF05
              |--C. guarani Rosso de Ferradás & Böttger 1997RFF05
              |--C. lundbladi Viets 1954RFF05
              |--C. schadei Lundblad 1938RFF05
              |--C. schubarti Viets 1938RFF05
              `--C. vietsi Lundblad 1941RFF05
Nomen nudum: Neotyrrellia paucipora Schwoerbel 1987RFF05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[G07] Goldschmidt, T. 2007. Zoogeographical relationships of Central American water mites. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 83–95. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[RFF05] Rosso de Ferradás, B., & H. R. Fernández. 2005. Elenco y biogeografía de los ácaros acuáticos (Acari, Parasitengona, Hydrachnidia) de Sudamérica. Graellsia 61 (2): 181–224.

[S86] Schwoerbel, J. 1986. Acari: “Hydrachnellae”. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 652–696. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

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