Liocranidae

Liocranum rupicola, copyright Dennis Schubert.

Belongs within: Gnaphosoidea.

The Liocranidae are a family of ground-hunting spiders found in forest litter. The family as commonly recognised was found by Ramírez (2014) to be polyphyletic and may need to be redefined in the future.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Small to medium-sized; usually eight eyes present in two rows, sometimes reduced to four; legs with two tarsal claws; ecribellate; posterior spinnerets with cylindrical gland spigots; female with posterior median spinnerets flattened; male palp with median apophysis; entelegyne.

<==LiocranidaeJD-S07
    |--CybaeodinaeJD-S07
    |    |--Cybaeodes madidusJD-S07
    |    `--AndrommaJD-S07
    `--Liocranum Koch 1866 [Liocraninae]JD-S07
         |--L. concolor Kraus 1955K55
         |--L. giersbergi Kraus 1955K55
         |--L. rupicola (Walckenaer 1825)K55
         |--L. rutilansK55
         `--L. segmentatumK55
Liocranidae incertae sedis:
  Scotina palliardi (Koch 1881)K02
  Itatsina Kishida 1930TYM08
  AgraecinaR14
  ArabeliaR14
  ArgistesR14
  CoryssiphusR14
  HesperocranumR14
  HeterochemmisR14
  LaudetiaR14
  LiocranoecaR14
  LiparochrysisR14
  MesobriaR14
  ParatusR14
  RhaboctesisR14
  VankeeriaR14
  Cteniogaster Bosselaers & Jocqué 2013R14
    `--C. hexommaR14
  Mesiotelus Simon 1897MG03
    |--M. kulczynskii Charitonov 1946MG03
    `--M. tenuissimus (Koch 1866)K55
  ApostenusR14
    |--A. californicusR14
    `--A. fuscusR14
Nomen nudum: Liocranum borealeS06

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K02] Koponen, S. 2002. Ground-living spiders in bogs in northern Europe. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 262–267.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[S06] Strand, E. 1906. Die arktischen Araneae, Opiliones und Chernetes. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 431–478. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

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