Liothrips

 Female Liothrips vaneeckei, from CSIRO.

Belongs within: Hoplothripini.

Liothrips is a large genus of leaf-feeding thrips, some species of which are used in the biological control of weeds. A large number of species have been described in this genus based on the assumption that they are largely host-specific; while this is true for some species, it is uncertain whether it should be assumed for the genus as a whole (Mound & Marullo 1996).

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Antennal segment III with one sense cone, segment IV with three; pronotum with five pairs of major setae; prosternal basantra absent; most body setae long and dark.

<==Liothrips Uzel 1895MM96
    |--*L. setinodis [=Phloeothrips setinodis]MM96
    |--L. acuminatusA78
    |--L. adisi Zur Strassen 1978MM96
    |--L. adusticornusA78
    |--L. aequilusA78
    |--L. africanusA78
    |--L. ampelopsidis (Moulton 1927) [=Rhynchothrips ampelopsidis]MM96
    |--L. amulensA78
    |--L. anogeissusA78
    |--L. anonae Moulton 1933MM96
    |--L. antennatus Priesner 1933MM96
    |--L. araliae Hood 1935MM96
    |--L. arrogantis Johansen 1978MM96
    |--L. assimilansA78
    |--L. associatusA78
    |--L. astutusA78
    |--L. atricolor De Santis 1950MM96
    |--L. avocadis Hood 1935MM96
    |--L. aztecus Johansen 1981MM96
    |--L. baccatiA78
    |--L. barronis Hood 1936MM96
    |--L. bibbyi Watson 1924MM96
    |--L. bispinosus Hood 1938MM96
    |--L. bondari Moulton 1933MM96
    |--L. boseiA78
    |--L. brasiliensis Moulton 1933MM96
    |--L. brevicornis Hood 1913MM96
    |--L. brevifemur Girault 1928G28a
    |--L. brevisetosusA78
    |--L. brevitubus (Moulton 1929) [=Rhynchothrips brevitubus]MM96
    |--L. ‘brevitubus’ Kono 1964 non Rhynchothrips brevitubus Moulton 1929MM96
    |--L. buffae (Hood 1908) [=Trichothrips buffae]MM96
    |--L. capnodes (Hood 1956) [=Rhynchothrips capnodes]MM96
    |--L. caryae (Fitsch 1856) [=Phloeothrips caryae; incl. L. dendropogonis Watson 1938, L. floridensis Watson 1916]MM96
    |--L. castaneae Hood 1915MM96
    |--L. chaviceaeA78
    |--L. citricornis (Hood 1908) [=Phyllothrips citricornis; incl. L. flavoantennis Watson 1916]MM96
    |--L. colimae Moulton 1929MM96
    |--L. collustratusA78
    |--L. comparandusA78
    |--L. condei Moulton 1933MM96
    |--L. confususA78
    |--L. cordiae Hood 1935MM96
    |--L. corni Moulton 1926MM96
    |--L. crassipesA78
    |--L. cunctans (Cott 1956) [=Rhynchothrips cunctans]MM96
    |--L. cuspidataeA78
    |--L. daetymonA78
    |--L. debilis (Hood 1925) [=Rhynchothrips debilis]MM96
    |--L. dentifer (Hood 1912) [=Rhynchothrips dentifer]MM96
    |--L. devriesiA78
    |--L. distinctus Moulton 1938MM96
    |--L. dumosus (Moulton 1907) [=Trichothrips dumosus]MM96
    |--L. duxA78
    |--L. emulatusA78
    |--L. epimeralis Hood 1938MM96
    |--L. eremicus Cott 1956MM96
    |--L. errabundus Zur Strassen 1975 [incl. L. claripennis Moulton 1933]MM96
    |--L. esakiiA78
    |--L. eugeniaeA78
    |--L. exiguusA78
    |--L. extractusA78
    |--L. fagraeaeA78
    |--L. ficariusA78
    |--L. flavitibiaA78
    |--L. floridensis (Watson 1913) [=Cryptothrips floridensis]MM96
    |--L. fragilisA78
    |--L. fraudulentusA78
    |--L. fumicornisA78
    |--L. fumipennisA78
    |--L. gaviotae (Moulton 1929) [=Haplothrips gaviotae]MM96
    |--L. gracilisA78
    |--L. gymnosporiaeA78
    |--L. gynopogoniA78
    |--L. habitatorA78
    |--L. heptapleuricolaA78
    |--L. heptapleuriiA78
    |--L. heptapleurinusA78
    |--L. herbae Girault 1928G28c
    |--L. hradecensisA78
    |--L. ilex (Moulton 1907) [=Trichothrips ilex]MM96
    |--L. ingratusA78
    |--L. inquilinusA78
    |--L. insidiosusA78
    |--L. interlocatusA78
    |--L. invisus (Cott 1956) [=Rhynchothrips invisus]MM96
    |--L. jacobsoniA78
    |--L. kannaniA78
    |--L. karnyiA78
    |--L. kolliensisA78
    |--L. kuwaniiA78
    |--L. latroA78
    |--L. laureli (Mason 1922) [=Cryptothrips laureli]MM96
    |--L. lepidus Cott 1956MM96
    |--L. liliaceaeA78
    |--L. litoralisA78
    |--L. longicepsA78
    |--L. longicollisA78
    |--L. longitubus (Hood 1908) [=Trichothrips longitubus]MM96
    |--L. loranthiA78
    |--L. macgregori Johansen 1978MM96
    |--L. macropanacisA78
    |--L. malabaricusA78
    |--L. matudai Johansen 1981MM96
    |--L. mendesi Moulton 1933MM96
    |--L. mexicanus (Moulton 1929) [=Hoplothrips mexicanus; incl. Teuchothrips pithecolobii Hood 1940]MM96
    |--L. mikaniae (Priesner 1923) [=Gynaikothrips mikaniae]MM96
    |--L. miniatiA78
    |--L. mirabilisA78
    |--L. monoensis Kono 1964MM96
    |--L. montanus Hood 1913MM96
    |--L. mucronisA78
    |--L. muscorum Watson 1926MM96
    |--L. nanusA78
    |--L. neosmerinthi Mound & Palmer 1992 (see below for synonymy)MM96
    |--L. nervisequusA78
    |--L. niger Girault 1927GM79
    |--L. nigriculus (Hood 1956) [=Rhynchothrips nigriculus]MM96
    |--L. nigripesA78
    |--L. nuvosegnusA78
    |--L. ocellatus Hood 1908MM96
    |--L. oculatusA78
    |--L. oleaeRD77
    |--L. oniscus Girault 1928G28b
    |--L. pallicornisM08 [=Adiaphorothrips pallicornisM08, Akainothrips pallicornisMP83]
    |--L. pallicrusA78
    |--L. pallipesA78
    |--L. parcus (Johansen 1978) [=Rhynchothrips parcus]MM96
    |--L. penetralis Hood 1935MM96
    |--L. perseae Watson 1924MM96
    |--L. peruviensis Moulton 1933MM96
    |--L. piger (Hood 1925) [=Rhynchothrips piger]MM96
    |--L. piperinusA78
    |--L. polybotryaeA78
    |--L. polyosminusA78
    |--L. postocularisA78
    |--L. praetermissusA78
    |--L. priesneri Bianchi 1968MM96
    |--L. pruni (Hood 1912) [=Rhynchothrips pruni]MM96
    |--L. querci Moulton 1929MM96
    |--L. racemosaeA78
    |--L. ramakrishnaeA78
    |--L. rectaginisA78
    |--L. reticulaticeps Girault 1927GM79
    |--L. retrofractiA78
    |--L. retususA78
    |--L. reynavaanaeA78
    |--L. rhapidophoraeA78
    |--L. rostratus (Hood 1927) [=Rhynchothrips rostratus]MM96
    |--L. rubiaeA78
    |--L. russelli (Hood 1925) [=Rhynchothrips russelli]MM96
    |--L. salti Moulton 1933MM96
    |--L. sambuci Hood 1913MM96
    |--L. sarmentosiA78
    |--L. satanas (Priesner 1923) [=Gynaikothrips satanas]MM96
    |--L. scheffleraA78
    |--L. seticollis Karny 1912 [incl. L. obscuricornis Priesner 1921]MM96
    |--L. similis Bagnall 1910MM96
    |--L. simillimusA78
    |--L. smeeanusA78
    |--L. sororM08
    |--L. spectabilisA78
    |--L. striaticeps (Blanchard 1851) [=Thrips striaticeps]MM96
    |--L. strigosusA78
    |--L. subtilisA78
    |--L. sulcifrons (Hood 1936) [=Gynaikothrips sulcifrons]MM96
    |--L. tabascensis Johansen 1976MM96
    |--L. takahashiiA78
    |--L. tandiliensis (Liebermann & Gemignani 1931) [=Phloeothrips tandiliensis]MM96
    |--L. taurusA78
    |--L. tenuisM08
    |--‘Neothrips’ tertius [=Rhynchothrips tertius]MM96
    |--L. tessariae Hood 1915MM96
    |--L. tetrastigmaeA78
    |--L. tibialisA78
    |--L. tridentatus (Shull 1909) [=Trichothrips tridentatus; incl. L. leucogonis Hood 1915]MM96
    |--L. tristisA78
    |--L. trybomiiA78
    |--L. tupac Hood 1938MM96
    |--L. umbripennis (Hood 1909) (see below for synonymy)MM96
    |--L. unicolor Moulton 1933MM96
    |--L. urichi Karny 1923MM96
    |--L. usitatus (Hood 1927) [=Rhynchothrips usitatus]MM96
    |--L. vaneeckei Priesner 1920MM96
    |--L. variabilisA78
    |--L. varicornis Hood 1912MM96
    |--L. vernoniae Moulton 1933MM96
    |--L. versicolor (Moulton 1929) [=Rhynchothrips versicolor]MM96
    |--L. vigilax Hood 1938MM96
    |--L. viticolaA78
    |--L. walsinghami Girault 1928G28b
    |--L. willcocksiA78
    |--L. xanthocerus Hood 1927MM96
    `--L. zetecki Hood 1913MM96

Liothrips neosmerinthi Mound & Palmer 1992 [incl. Neosmerinthothrips debilis Hood 1936 non Rhynchothrips debilis Hood 1925]MM96

Liothrips umbripennis (Hood 1909) [=Phyllothrips umbripennis; incl. L. mexicana Crawford 1910 non Hoplothrips mexicanus Moulton 1929]MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[G28a] Girault, A. A. 1928a. A prodigeous discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 218–220).

[G28b] Girault, A. A. 1928b. Some Insecta and a new All Highness. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 225–228).

[G28c] Girault, A. A. 1928c. Notice of a curious professor and of native wasps and wood lice. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 229–232).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[M08] Mound, L. A. 2008. Identification and host associations of some Thysanoptera Phlaeothripinae described from Australia pre-1930. Zootaxa 1714: 41–60.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[MP83] Mound, L. A., & J. M. Palmer. 1983. The generic and tribal classification of spore-feeding Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae: Idolothripinae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (1): 1–174.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

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