Lithobius forficatus, copyright Shane.

Belongs within: Myriapoda.

The Lithobiidae are a group of centipedes widespread in temperate regions. Some authors have restricted this family to taxa with prominent lateral teeth on the claws, while others have recognised this group in a broader sense (Mundel 1990). The species Lithobius forficatus is the most commonly found centipede species in Europe.

Characters (from Mundel 1990): Ocelli generally more than four in each ocular area (a few forms eyeless). Fifteen tergites and sternites present. Coxal pores present on more than the last two pairs of coxae in adults. True spurs present on legs.

    |--Australobius Chamberlin 1920EH02
    |    |--*A. scabrior Chamberlin 1920EH02
    |    |--A. ethodes (Chamberlin 1939)EH02
    |    |--A. loriae (Silvestri 1894)EH02
    |    |--A. tenuiunguis Eason 1980EH02
    |    `--A. viduus Attems 1932EH02
    |--Sotimpius Chamberlin 1912 [incl. Labrobius Chamberlin 1915]K54
    |    |--S. costaricensisK54
    |    |--S. decodontus (Pocock 1895) [=Lithobius decodontus]K54
    |    |--S. macrocerusK54
    |    |--S. multigranosus Kraus 1954K54
    |    |--S. salvadorensis Kraus 1954K54
    |    |--S. vulcaniK54
    |    `--S. zilchi Kraus 1954K54
         |--L. aeruginosus [incl. L. aeruginosus var. mongolicus Attems 1901]A01
         |--L. atkinsoniBSL19
         |--L. captivus Stuxberg 1876A01
         |--L. crassipesK09
         |--L. decessus Attems 1901A01
         |--L. elongatus Newport 1848E12
         |--L. forficatus (Linnaeus 1758)BFM03
         |--L. grossipes [incl. L. grossipes var. debilis Latzel 1889]L89
         |--L. longicornis Risso 1826R26
         |--L. lucasi Newport 1848E12
         |--L. maxillosus Koch & Berendt 1854RB93
         |--L. melanopsK09
         |--L. monilicornis Newport 1848E12
         |--L. obscurusGEW01
         |--L. rugosusA01
         |--L. variegatus (Eason 1964)EH02
         `--L. vulgarisCM07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A01] Attems, C. Graf. 1901. Myriopodák [Myriopoden]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 275–310. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[BSL19] Ballesteros, J. A., C. E. Santibáñez López, Ľ. Kováč, E. Gavish-Regev & P. P. Sharma. 2019. Ordered phylogenomic subsampling enables diagnosis of systematic errors in the placement of the enigmatic arachnid order Palpigradi. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 286: 20192426.

[BFM03] Bonato, L., D. Foddai & A. Minelli. 2003. Evolutionary trends and patterns in centipede segment number based on a cladistic analysis of Mecistocephalidae (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha). Systematic Entomology 28: 539–579.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[C62] Crabill, R. E., Jr. 1962. A new Cruzobius from Mexico (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Watobiidae). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 133–136.

[EH02] Edgecombe, G. D., & L. M. Hollington. 2002. Morphology and distribution of Australobius scabrior (Chilopoda: Lithobiomorpha: Lithobiidae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 48: 103–118.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[GEW01] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe & W. C. Wheeler. 2001. Arthropod phylogeny based on eight molecular loci and morphology. Nature 413: 157–161.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[K54] Kraus, O. 1954. Myriapoden aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (5-6): 293–349.

[L89] Latzel, R. 1889. Sopra alenni miriapodi cavernicoli italiani, raccolti dai Sign. A. Vacca e R. Barberi. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 360–362.

Mundel, P. 1990. Chilopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 819–833. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RB93] Ross, A. J., & D. E. G. Briggs. 1993. Arthropoda (Euthycarcinoidea and Myriapoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 357–361. Chapman & Hall: London.

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