Littorininae

Common periwinkle Littorina littorea, copyright Anita Gould.

Belongs within: Littorinoidea.

The Littorininae are a group of periwinkles found in the littoral fringe, characterised by the production of dimorphic spermatozoa including paraspermatic nurse cells, and egg capsules via a capsule gland (Reid 1989).

Littorininae [Littorinae]
    |–Cenchritis von Martens 1900 R89
    |–Nina Gray 1850 BR17 [incl. Echininus Clench & Abbott 1942 BR05; Echinininae]
    |    `–*N. cumingii (Philippi 1846) [=Trochus cumingii, *Echininus cumingii] BR17
    |–Mainwaringia Nevill 1885 R89
    |    `–*M. paludomoidea (Nevill 1884) [=Melania (*Mainwaringia) paludomoidea] P84
    |–Tectarius Valenciennes 1833 BR05, BR17 [incl. Echinella Swainson 1840 R89; Tectariinae]
    |    |–*T. coronatus Valenciennes 1832 S98
    |    |–T. malaccanus (Philippi 1847) [=Littorina malaccana] H09
    |    |–T. muricatus (Linnaeus 1758) S98
    |    |–T. nodulosus (Gmelin 1791) [=Trochus nodulosus] H09
    |    |–T. pagodus Linnaeus 1758 WG71
    |    `–T. pyramidalis H15
    |–Littoraria Griffith & Pidgeon 1834 R89
    |    |–L. angulifera (Lamarck 1822) AS06
    |    |–L. articulata E96
    |    |–L. cingulata W08
    |    |    |–L. c. cingulata W08
    |    |    `–L. c. pristissini W08
    |    |–L. filosa MD13
    |    |–L. flammea CG99
    |    |–L. flava (King & Broderip 1832) AS06
    |    `–L. undulata Gray 1839 BW09
    |–Peasiella Nevill 1885 R89
    |    |–*P. tantilla (Gould 1849) (see below for synonymy) R89
    |    |–P. conoidalis (Pease 1868) (see below for synonymy) R89
    |    |–P. infracostata (Issel 1869) (see below for synonymy) R89
    |    |–P. isseli (Semper in Issel 1869) (see below for synonymy) R89
    |    |–P. lutulenta Reid 1989 R89
    |    |–P. minuta (Deshayes 1824) (see below for synonymy) R89
    |    |–P. pontileviensis (Morgan 1915) (see below for synonymy) R89
    |    |–P. reyti (Cossmann & Peyrot 1917) [=Pseudonina reyti] R89
    |    `–P. roepstorffiana (Nevill 1885) (see below for synonymy) R89
    |–Melarhaphe Menke 1828 R89 [=Melarapha Cristofori & Jan 1832 R66, Melaraphe (l. c.) BR17; Melarhaphidae]
    |    |–M. neritoides (Linnaeus 1758) P61, R77 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |–M. acutispira H15
    |    |–M. cincta (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) P61
    |    |–M. infans H15
    |    |–M. mauritiana H15
    |    |–M. mausseneti (Cossmann 1907) TTE93
    |    |–M. oliveri Finlay 1930 P61
    |    |–M. punctata [=Littorina punctata] PP64
    |    |–M. rissoides (Deshayes 1861) TTE93
    |    |–M. scabra H15
    |    |–M. scutulata (Gould 1849) O27 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |–M. unifasciata Gray 1826 WG71
    |    |–M. zelandiae Finlay 1927 F27
    |    `–M. ziczac (Gmelin 1791) (see below for synonymy) A64
    `–Littorina Férussac 1822 BR05
         |  i. s.: L. aberrans Philippi 1846 PP78
         |         L. acicularis Stoliczka 1868 S98
         |         L. albicarinata McLean 1970 BC01
         |         L. anatina [=Paludina anatina] G40
         |         L. angulifera C59
         |         L. arcana Hannaford Ellis 1978 CC96
         |         L. aspera C64
         |         L. brevicula ZLK11
         |         L. coccinea (Martyn 1784) [=Limax coccineus] H09
         |         L. columellaris G79
         |         L. conspersa C64
         |         L. fasciata PB27
         |         L. filosa PRM96
         |         L. flava G79
         |         L. infans F27
         |         L. irrorata Say 1822 R77
         |         L. kurila C64
         |         L. lineolata Orbigny 1842 (see below for synonymy) A64
         |         L. littoralis C60 [=Nerita litoralis J64]
         |         L. mariae Sacchi & Rastelli 1966 R77
         |         L. mauritiana (Lamarck 1822) F27 [=Phasianella mauritiana H09]
         |         L. melanacme Smith 1876 H09
         |         L. melanostoma F66
         |         L. muriatica [=Turbo muriaticus] G40
         |         L. muricata PB27
         |         L. nebulosa (Lamarck 1822) [=Phasianella nebulosa] H09
         |         L. neglecta CC96
         |         L. nigrolineata Gray 1839 R77
         |         L. nodulosa [incl. L. dilatata, L. tuberculata] G79
         |         L. obesa F66
         |         L. obtusata GD00
         |         L. pallescens Philippi 1846 H09
         |         L. palliata H15
         |         L. philippii [incl. L. dubiosa, L. parvula, L. penicillata] C64
         |         L. picta Philippi 1846 R77
         |         L. pintado Wood 1828 R77
         |         L. pulchra PB27
         |         L. pullata C64
         |         L. saxatilis ZLK11
         |         L. scabra (Linnaeus 1758) R77 [=Helix scabra H09; incl. Buccinum lineatum Gmelin 1791 A64]
         |         L. tenebrosa C64
         |         L. tessellata Philippi 1847 A64 (see below for synonymy)
         |         L. tigrina G79
         |         L. ulvae G40
         |         L. undulata Gray 1839 H09
         |         L. varia PB27
         |–*L. (Littorina) littorea (Linnaeus 1758) O27, P77 [=Turbo littoreus O27; incl. L. grandis C64]
         |–L. (Algamorda Dall 1918) O27
         |    |–L. (A.) castanea (Carpenter 1865) [=Paludinella castanea] O27
         |    |–L. (A.) newcombiana (Hemphill 1876) [=Paludinella newcombiana] O27
         |    `–L. (A.) subrotundata (Carpenter 1865) [=Assiminea subrotunda] O27
         |–L. (Algaroda Dall 1918) O27
         |    `–L. (A.) squalida Broderip & Sowerby 1829 O27
         `–L. (Littorivaga Dall 1918) O27
              |–L. (L.) aleutica Dall 1872 O27
              |–L. (L.) atkana Dall 1886 O27
              |–L. (L.) groenlandica Menke 1830 O27
              |–L. (L.) planaxis Philippi 1847 O27 [incl. L. patula C64, L. tenebrata Phil. 1845 C64]
              |–L. (L.) rudis (Manton 1797) O27, R77 [=Turbo rudis O27]
              `–L. (L.) sitchana Philippi 1845 O27 (see below for synonymy)

Nomen nudum: Melarhaphe rupestris R66

Littorina lineolata Orbigny 1842 [incl. L. carinata Orbigny 1842 non Sowerby 1819, L. crassior Philippi 1847, L. jamaicensis Adams 1850] A64

Littorina tessellata Philippi 1847 A64 [incl. Phasianella lineata Lamarck 1822 non Buccinum lineatum Gmelin 1791 A64, L. lineata G79]

Littorina (Littorivaga) sitchana Philippi 1845 O27 [incl. L. cincta Gld. 1847 C64, L. sitchana var. modesta C64, L. subtenebrosa C64, L. sulcata C64]

Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus 1758) P61, R77 [=Littorina neritoides P61; incl. Turbo caerulescens R66, M. coerulescens R66, Paludina glabrata Pfeiffer 1828 P61, BR17, *M. glabrata BR17]

Melarhaphe scutulata (Gould 1849) O27 [=Littorina (Melarhaphe) scutulata O27; incl. L. lepida C64, L. pedroana Conrad 1855 C64, L. plena C64]

Melarhaphe ziczac (Gmelin 1791) [=Littorina ziczac; incl. L. debilis Philippi 1846, L. dispar Montagu 1815, L. dorbignyana Philippi 1847] A64

Peasiella conoidalis (Pease 1868) [=Trochus conoidalis, Risella (Peasiella) conoidalis; incl. Echinella gaidei Montrouzier in Souverbie & Montrouzier 1879, R. (P.) gaidei] R89

Peasiella infracostata (Issel 1869) [=Risella infracostata; incl. Cyclostrema fuscopiperata Turton 1932, R. (Peasiella) tantillus var. subinfracostata Nevill 1885] R89

Peasiella isseli (Semper in Issel 1869) [=Risella isseli; incl. R. isseli var. carinata Pallary 1926, R. isseli var. mauritiana Viader 1951, Trochus sismondae Issel 1869, R. isseli var. undata Pallary 1926] R89

Peasiella minuta (Deshayes 1824) [=Trochus minutus, Bembicium minutum, Risella minuta; incl. Xenophora bouryi Cossmann 1888] R89

Peasiella pontileviensis (Morgan 1915) [=Xenophora (Haliphaebus) pontileviensis, Circulus pontileviensis; incl. Tornus orthezensis Cossmann & Peyrot 1918, C. orthezensis] R89

Peasiella roepstorffiana (Nevill 1885) [=Risella (Peasiella) roepstorffiana; incl. R. balteata Preston 1908, R. (P.) templiana var. nigrofasciata Nevill 1885, R. (P.) templiana var. subimbricata Nevill 1885, R. (P.) templiana Nevill 1885] R89

*Peasiella tantilla (Gould 1849) [=Trochus tantillus, Bembicium tantillum, Risella (Peasiella) tantilla, R. (P.) tantillus; incl. Margarita angulata Adams 1853, Trochus diminutivus Reeve 1862, Risella parvula Dunker 1861, R. (Peasiella) tantillus var. parvula] R89

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A64] Abbott, R. T. 1964. Littorina ziczac (Gmelin) and L. lineolata Orbigny. Nautilus 78 (2): 65–66.

[AS06] Andrade, S. C. S., & V. N. Solferini. 2006. The influence of size on the radula of Littoraria angulifera (Gastropoda: Littorinidae). Malacologia 49 (1): 1–5.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C59] Caldwell, D. K. 1959. Notes on the crown conch, Melongena corona. Nautilus 72 (4): 117–122.

[CG99] Carlton, J. T., J. B. Geller, M. L. Reaka-Kudla & E. A. Norse. 1999. Historical extinctions in the sea. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 315–338.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[CC96] Crossland, S., D. Coates, J. Grahame & P. J. Mill. 1996. The Littorina saxatilis species complex—interpretation using random amplified polymorphic DNAs. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 205–209. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[E96] Eertman, R. H. M. 1996. Comparative study on gill morphology of gastropods from Moreton Bay, Queensland. Molluscan Research 17: 3–20.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[GD00] Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539–562.

[G40] Gray, J. E. 1840. A Manual of the Land and Fresh-water Shells of the British Islands, with figures of each of the kinds. By William Turton, M.D. A new edition, thoroughly revised and much enlarged. Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans: London.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[H15] Hedley, C. 1915. Presidential address. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 1–77, pls 1–7.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. The Upper Tertiary fossils at Uddevalla, in Sweden. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 73–79.

[MD13] Meiklejohn, K. A., M. Dowton, T. Pape & J. F. Wallman. 2013. A key to the Australian Sarcophagidae (Diptera) with special emphasis on Sarcophaga (sensu lato). Zootaxa 3680 (1): 148–189.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PB27] Pilsbry, H. A., & J. Bequaert. 1927. The aquatic mollusks of the Belgian Congo, with a geographical and ecological account of Congo malacology. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 53 (2): 69–602, pls 10–77.

[P84] Ponder, W. F. 1984. A review of the genera of the Iravadiidae (Gastropoda: Rissoacea) with an assessment of the relationships of the family. Malacologia 25 (1): 21–71.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P77] Pratt, D. M. 1977. Homing in Urosalpinx cinerea in response to prey effluent and tidal periodicity. Veliger 20 (1): 30–32.

[PRM96] Preston, S. J., D. Roberts & W. I. Montgomery. 1996. The Mollusca: coelomate turbellarians or mesenchymate annelids? In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 313–325. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[R77] Raffaelli, D. G. 1977. Observations on the copulatory behavior of Littorina rudis (Maton) and Littorina nigrolineata Gray (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Veliger 20 (2): 75–77.

[R89] Reid, D. G. 1989. Systematic revision of the Recent species of Peasiella Nevill, 1885 (Gastropoda: Littorinidae), with notes on the fossil species. Nautilus 103 (2): 43–69.

[R66] Rosewater, J. 1966. Reinstatement of Melarhaphe Menke, 1828. Nautilus 80 (2): 37–38.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W08] Wilson, B. 2008. Background information on Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 1–9.

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

[ZLK11] Zou, S., Q. Li & L. Kong. 2011. Additional gene data and increased sampling give new insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Neogastropoda, within the caenogastropod phylogenetic framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 425–435.

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