Lituolidae

Placopsilina sp., copyright Moorea Biocode.

Belongs within: Miliamminana.

The Lituolidae are a group of agglutinating foraminifera known from the Carboniferous to the present. The most basic morphology in the family is represented by the subfamily Haplophragmoidinae, in which the test is coiled with a simple interior structure. In members of the subfamily Lituolinae, the test is usually coiled in the earliest stages only, subsequently becoming uncoiled as the foram approaches maturity (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Test free or attached, early stage coiled, later may be uncoiled, irregular or annular; wall agglutinated, with calcareous cement or microgranular calcite, interior simple to labyrinthic, epidermal layer imperforate; aperture single or multiple.

Lituolidae [Lituacea, Lituolata, Lituoletta, Lituolideae, Lituolitidae, Polyphragmidae]
|--LituolinaeLT64
| |--Ammotium Loeblich & Tappan 1953LT64
| | `--*A. cassis (Parker in Dawson 1870) [=Lituola cassis]LT64
| |--Discamminoides Brönnimann 1951LT64
| | `--*D. tobleri Brönnimann 1951LT64
| |--Phenacophragma Applin, Loeblich & Tappan 1950LT64
| | `--*P. assurgens Applin, Loeblich & Tappan 1950LT64
| |--Stomatostoecha Applin, Loeblich & Tappan 1950LT64
| | `--*S. plummerae Applin, Loeblich & Tappan 1950LT64
| |--Ammobaculoides Plummer 1932 [incl. Spiroplectella Earland 1934]LT64
| | |--*A. navarroensis Plummer 1932LT64
| | `--A. cylindroides (Earland 1934) [=*Spiroplectella cylindroides]LT64
| |--Triplasia Reuss 1854 (see below for synonymy)LT64
| | |--*T. murchisoni Reuss 1854LT64 [=Haplophragmium murchisoniLT52, *Rhabdogonium murchisoniLT64]
| | |--T. abkhasicus (Keller 1946) [=Haplophragmium abkhasicus]LT52
| | |--T. acuta Bartenstein & Brand 1951 [=T. emslandensis acuta]LT52
| | |--T. acutocarinata (Alexander & Smith 1932) [=Frankeina acutocarinata]LT52
| | |--T. andraei (Liebus 1911) [=Haplophragmium andraei, Ammobaculites andraei]LT52
| | |--T. bartensteini Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT52
| | |--T. beisseli (Marie 1941) [=Frankeina beisseli]LT52
| | |--T. commutata (Loeblich & Tappan 1950) [=Frankeina commutata]LT52
| | |--T. cushmani (Alexander & Smith 1932) [=Frankeina cushmani]LT52
| | |--T. deadericki Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT52
| | |--T. elegans (Mjatliuk 1939) [=Frankeina elegans]LT52
| | |--T. fundibularis (Harris & Jobe 1951) [=Frankeina fundibularis]LT52
| | |--T. georgsdorfensis (Bartenstein & Brand 1949)LT64 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--T. glenrosensis Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT52
| | |--T. goodlandensis (Cushman & Alexander 1929) [=*Frankeina goodlandensis]LT64
| | |--T. grosserugosa ten Dam 1946LT52
| | |--T. hungarica (Majzon 1948)LT52, LT64 [=*Centenarina hungaricaLT64]
| | |--T. incerta (Alexander & Smith 1932) [=Frankeina incerta]LT52
| | |--T. insolita (Alexander & Smith 1932) [=Frankeina insolita]LT52
| | |--T. jurassica (Mjatliuk 1939) [=Flabellammina (Frankeina) jurassica]LT52
| | |--T. kingakensis Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT52
| | |--T. marwicki Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT52
| | |--T. mexicana Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT52
| | |--T. minuta (Reuss 1867) [=Rhabdogonium minutum]LT52
| | |--T. nodosa Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT52
| | |--T. plummerae Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT52
| | |--T. pseudoroemeri Bartenstein & Brand 1951 [incl. Tetraplasia quadrata Bartenstein & Brand 1951]LT52
| | |--T. roemeri (Reuss 1860) [=Rhabdogonium roemeri, Ammobaculites roemeri]LT52
| | |--T. rugosissima (Alexander & Smith 1932) [=Frankeina rugosissima]LT52
| | |--T. saratogensis Loeblich & Tappan 1952LT52
| | |--T. taylorensis (Cushman & Waters 1929) [=Frankeina taylorensis]LT52
| | |--T. trigona (Andrae 1890) [=Haplophragmium humboldti var. trigona]LT52
| | |--T. variabilis (Brady 1884) [=Verneuilina variabilis, Ammobaculites variabilis]LT52
| | |--T. wenoensis (Alexander & Smith 1932) [=Frankeina wenoensis]LT52
| | `--T. wrighti (De Amicis 1895) [=Haplophragmium wrighti]LT52
| `--Lituola Lamarck 1804 [=Lituolites Lamarck 1804; incl. Cribrospirella Marie 1941]LT64
| |--*L. nautiloidea Lamarck 1804 [=*Lituolites nautiloidea]LT64
| |--‘Lituolites’ difformis Lamarck 1804 [=*Cribrospirella difformis]LT64
| |--L. mexicanaC40
| |--L. scorpiurusB64
| `--L. taylorensisC40
`--Ammobaculites Cushman 1910LT64 [AmmobaculitinaeM13]
|--*A. agglutinans (d’Orbigny 1846)LT64 [=Spirolina agglutinansH03]
|--A. calcareumC40
|--A. catenulatusH03
|--A. compressa [=Ammomarginulina compressa]LT64
|--A. coprolithiformeC40
|--A. foliaceusLT64
|--A. humboldti [=Spirolina humboldti, Haplophragmium humboldti; incl. H. humboldti var. latum]LT52
|--A. stenomecaC40
`--A. taylorensisC40

Triplasia Reuss 1854 [=Rhabdogonium Reuss 1860; incl. Centenarina Majzon 1948, Centenaria (l. c.), Frankeina Cushman & Alexander 1929, Tetraplasia Bartenstein & Brand 1949]LT64

Triplasia georgsdorfensis (Bartenstein & Brand 1949)LT64 [=*Tetraplasia georgsdorfensisLT64; incl. Tr. emslandensis Bartenstein & Brand 1951LT52]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B64] Brady, H. B. 1864. Notes on Foraminifera new to the British fauna. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 100–101.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[H03] Hanagata, S. 2003. Miocene-Pliocene Foraminifera from the Niigata oil-fields region, northeastern Japan. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 293–340.

[LT52] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1952. The foraminiferal genus Triplasia Reuss, 1854. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (15): 1–61, 8 pls.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M13] Mikhalevich, V. I. 2013. New insight into the systematics and evolution of the Foraminifera. Micropaleontology 59 (6): 493–527.

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