Lixinae

Sluggish weevil Cleonis pigra, copyright Katja Schulz.

Belongs within: Curculioninae.
Contains: Lixus, Larinus.

The Lixinae are relatively large weevils often associated with arid habitats (Anderson 2002).

Characters (from Anderson 2002): Large weevils, often grey or otherwise dull in colour and scale patter; rostrum short and wide or long and slender; labial palpi short, globular, telescoping, of three articles but appearing composed of one article, ventrally situated at apex of large prementum; females with large paired symbiont sacs attached to vagina near base of gonocoxites.

<==LixinaeB14
    |  i. s.: Broconius pallipes Zumpt 1938HF03
    |         Hypolixus nubilosus (Boheman 1836) [incl. H. ornatus Reiche 1857, Lixus ornatus]HF03
    |         Mecaspis baudii Faust 1887HF03
    |         Menecleonus anxius (Gyllenhal 1834)HF03
    |         Rhabdorrhynchus anchusae (Chevrolat 1854)HF03
    |         NefisB14
    |--RhinocylliniGC-P14
    |    |--Rhinocyllus Germar 1817A02
    |    |    |--*R. conicus (Froelich 1792)M94, A02
    |    |    `--R. oblongus Capiomont 1873HF03
    |    `--Bangasternus Gozis 1882 [incl. Coelostethus Capiomont 1873 non LeConte 1861]A02
    |         |--B. fausti Reitter 1890A02
    |         |--B. orientalis (Capiomont 1873)A02
    |         `--B. planifrons (Brullé 1832)HF03
    |--LixiniGC-P14
    |    |--LixusG89
    |    |--LarinusGC-P14
    |    |--Eustenopus Petri 1907A02
    |    |    `--E. villosus (Boheman 1843)A02
    |    `--Microlarinus Hockhuth 1847A02
    |         |--M. lareynii (Jacquelin du Val 1852)A02
    |         |--M. lypriformis (Wollaston 1861)A02
    |         `--M. rhinocylloides Hochhuth 1847HF03
    `--Cleonini [Cleonides, Cleoninae]A02
         |--Scaphomorphus Motschulsky 1860 (see below for synonymy)A02
         |    `--‘Cleonidius’ poricollisM94
         |--Apleurus Chevrolat 1873 (see below for synonymy)A02
         |    `--A. albovestitusA02
         |--Cyphocleonus Motschulsky 1860A02
         |    `--C. achates (Fahraeus 1842)A02
         |--Stephanocleonus Motschulsky 1860 (see below for synonymy)A02
         |    |--S. fossulatusZ02
         |    `--S. plumbeusA02
         |--Adioristus Waterhouse 1841W41
         |    |--A. angustatus Waterhouse 1841W41
         |    |--A. conspersus Waterhouse 1841W41
         |    |--A. punctulatus Waterhouse 1841W41
         |    |--A. simplex Waterhouse 1841W41
         |    `--A. subdenudatus Waterhouse 1841W41
         `--Cleonis Dejean 1821 [=Cleonus; incl. Geomorphus Schoenherr 1823, Xerobia Gistel 1856]A02
              |--C. alternansR13
              |--C. candidus [=Lixus candidus]G89
              |--C. carinicollisC01
              |--C. flavicepsC01
              |--C. fossulatusC01
              |--C. hieroglyphicus [=Lixus hieroglyphicus]G89
              |--C. ophthalmicaR26
              |--C. pigra (Scopoli 1763)A02
              |--C. pulverulentusC01
              |--C. punctiventrisC01
              |--C. quadrivittatusC01
              |--C. sulcirostrisR26
              `--C. tigrinusC01

Apleurus Chevrolat 1873 [incl. Centrocleonus LeConte 1876 non Chevrolat 1873, Cleonaspis LeConte 1876, Cleonopsis LeConte 1876, Dinocleus Casey 1891, Gibbostethus Anderson 1988]A02

Scaphomorphus Motschulsky 1860 [=Scaphidomorphus Lacordaire 1863 non Hope 1841; incl. Cleonidius Casey 1891, Lixestus Reitter 1916]A02

Stephanocleonus Motschulsky 1860 [incl. Deracanthopsis Voss 1967, Eremocleonus Ter-Minasian 1974, Eucleonus Faust 1904, Sanzia Alonso-Zarazaga & Lyal 1999, Taeniocleonus Ter-Minasian 1974]A02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A02] Anderson, R. S. 2002. Curculionidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 722–815. CRC Press.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GC-P14] Gillett, C. P. D. T., A. Crampton-Platt, M. J. T. N. Timmermans, B. H. Jordal, B. C. Emerson & A. P. Vogler. 2014. Bulk de novo mitogenome assembly from pooled total DNA elucidates the phylogeny of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea). Molecular Biology and Evolution 31 (8): 2223–2237.

[HF03] Halperin, J., & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93–100.

[M94] May, B. M. 1994. An introduction to the immature stages of Australian Curculionoidea. In: Zimmerman, E. C. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May pp. 365–728. CSIRO Australia.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[W41] Waterhouse, G. R. 1841. Descriptions of some new coleopterous insects from the southern parts of S. America, collected by C. Darwin, Esq., and T. Bridges, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 9: 105–128.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Pattern of insect burial and conservation. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 17–63. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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