Strychnine tree Strychnos nux-vomica, copyright Aravind PS.

Belongs within: Gentianales.
Contains: Logania, Mitrasacme, Geniostoma.

Loganiaceae are a morphologically diverse family of tropical and subtropical flowering plants, many of which bear whitish, fragrant flowers (Conn 1995).

Characters (from Conn 1995): Trees, shrubs, woody climbers or herbs, sometimes epiphytic or hemi-epiphytic. Colleters, often present in axils of leaves, stipules and sepals. Leaves usually decussate; margin more or less entire; usually penninerved, rarely 3–7-plinerved or curvinerved; stipules interpetiolar, often reduced to stipular line, sometimes intrapetiolar. Inflorescences cymose, monadic to triadic, botryoidal, metabotryoidal to paniculate. Flowers actinomorphic, usually bisexual. Calyx usually 5-merous (occasionally 4-merous), sepals united or free. Corolla alternating, inserted on corolla tube, included or exserted; anthers basifixed or sometimes subdorsifixed, slightly to deeply bifid basally, dehiscence introrse by lengthwise slits. Ovary superior (rarely semi-inferior), 2-locular, placentas axile, often peltate; ovules one to many, amphitropous or anatropous; style usually one (occasionally two, more or less connate). Fruit always superior, capsular, berry-like or drupaceous. Seeds one to many, with copious endosperm; embryo minute, straight; cotyledons small.

<==Loganiaceae [Strychnaceae]
    |--+--Usteria Willd. 1790SK02, KC01
    |  |    `--U. guineensisSK02
    |  `--+--Antonia [Antonieae]SK02
    |     |    `--A. ovataBJ99
    |     `--BonyuniaSK02
    |          |--B. minorSK02
    |          `--B. superbaSK02
    `--+--NeuburgiaSK02 [=Neubergia (l. c.)C95]
       |    |--N. celebica (Koord.) Leenh. 1963 (see below for synonymy)C95
       |    |--N. corynocarpa (Gray) Leenh. 1963 (see below for synonymy)C95
       |    |    |--N. c. var. corynocarpaC95
       |    |    `--N. c. var. sarcantha (Gilg & Benedict) Conn 1979 (see below for synonymy)C95
       |    |--N. kochii (Val.) Leenh. 1963 (see below for synonymy)C95
       |    |--N. rumphiana Leenh. 1962C95
       |    `--N. tubiflora Bl. 1850C95
       `--+--Gardneria ovataSK02
             |  |--Mitreola L. 1758SK02, L95
             |  |    |--M. paniculataC55b
             |  |    `--M. petiolata (Gmel.) Torr. & Gray 1841C95 (see below for synonymy)
             |  `--+--MitrasacmeSK02
             |     `--GeniostomaceaeT00
             |          |--GeniostomaSK02
             |          `--LabordiaT00
             |               |--L. tinifoliaSK02
             |               `--L. waiolaniAS02
             `--+--Spigelia L. 1753BJ99, L95 [Spigeliaceae, Spigelieae]
                |    |--S. anthelmia Linnaeus 1753C95
                |    |--S. humboldtianaC55a
                |    |--S. marilandicaBJ99
                |    `--S. petiolataC55a
                     |--S. (sect. Penicillatae) axillaris Colebr. 1819 (see below for synonymy)C95
                     |--S. barbata Hill 1909GB16
                     |--S. forbesii Hill 1909GB16
                     |--S. ignatiiK03
                     |--S. ligustrina [incl. S. lucida]C95
                     |--S. lucidaB00
                     |--S. (sect. Lanigerae) minor Dennst. 1818 (see below for synonymy)C95
                     |--S. multifloraS16
                     |--S. nux-vomicaBJ99
                     |--S. potatorumBJ99
                     |--S. rupicola Pierre ex Dop 1910 [incl. S. donnaiensis Pierre ex Dop 1910]L05
                     |--S. spinosaB14
                     |--S. tomentosaSK02
                     `--S. wallichiana Steudel ex de Candolle 1845 (see below for synonymy)L03
Loganiaceae incertae sedis:
    |--P. palustreGK00
    |--P. paradoxumG04
    `--P. sulcatumOS04
    |--N. majorH03
    `--N. malaccensisH03
  Cynoctonum pachyphyllumM72, D03
  Couthovia Gray 1858GB16
    `--C. seemanniiGB16

Mitreola petiolata (Gmel.) Torr. & Gray 1841C95 [=Cynoctonum petiolatum Gmel. 1791L95; incl. Ophiorrhiza mitreola L. 1753L95, C. mitreola (Linnaeus) Britt. 1894C95, Mitreola oldenlandioides Don 1837 (nom. illeg.)C95, C. mitreola var. orthocarpa Hochr. 1910C95]

Neuburgia celebica (Koord.) Leenh. 1963 [=Couthovia celebica Koord. 1898; incl. C. calophylla Gilg. & Bened. 1921, C. macrophylla Merr. & Perry 1942, C. sarcantha Cammerl. 1924 non Gilg. & Bened. 1916]C95

Neuburgia corynocarpa (Gray) Leenh. 1963 [=Couthovia corynocarpa Gray 1859; incl. C. astyla Gilg & Benedict 1916, C. brachyura Gilg & Benedict 1916, C. brassii Moore 1929, C. densiflora Schum. 1905, C. leucocarpa Merr. & Perry 1942, C. novo-britannica Kan. & Hat. 1939, C. nymanii Gilg & Benedict 1916, C. pachypoda Gilg & Benedict 1916, C. rhynochocarpa Gilg & Benedict 1916, C. terminaloides Gilg & Benedict 1916, C. yunzaingensis Merr. & Perry 1948]C95

Neuburgia corynocarpa var. sarcantha (Gilg & Benedict) Conn 1979 [=Couthovia sarcantha Gilg & Benedict 1916, N. sarcantha (Gilg & Benedict) Leenh. 1962]C95

Neuburgia kochii (Val.) Leenh. 1963 [=Couthovia kochii Val. 1907; incl. C. undulatifolia Kan. & Hat. 1942, C. urophylla Gilg & Benedict 1916]C95

Strychnos axillaris Colebr. 1819 [incl. S. oophylla Gilg & Benedict 1916, S. penicillata Hill 1917, S. polytoma Gilg & Benedict 1916]C95

Strychnos minor Dennst. 1818 [incl. S. cinnamophylla Gilg & Benedict 1916, S. colubrina Hill 1917 non Linnaeus 1753, S. kerstingii Gilg & Schumann 1901, S. ledermanii Gilg & Benedict 1916, S. leuconeura Gilg & Benedict 1916, S. melanocarpa Gilg & Benedict 1916, S. myriantha Gilg & Benedict 1916, S. pycnoneura Gilg & Benedict 1916]C95

Strychnos wallichiana Steudel ex de Candolle 1845 [incl. S. cirrhosa Stokes 1812 (nom. illeg.), S. colubrina Linnaeus 1753 (nom. utique rej. prop.)]L03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS02] Albert, V. A., & L. Struwe. 2002. Gentianaceae in context. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 1–20. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[BJ99] Bremer, B., R. K. Jansen, B. Oxelman, M. Backlund, H. Lantz & K.-J. Kim. 1999. More characters or more taxa for a robust phylogeny—case study from the coffee family (Rubiaceae). Systematic Biology 48 (3): 413–435.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C95] Conn, B. J. 1995. Loganiaceae. In: Conn, B. J. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 3 pp. 132–188. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Australia).

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 6. Mt Manning Range. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 35–47.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[L03] Lakshminarasimhan, P. 2003. (1585) Proposal to reject the name Strychnos colubrina (Loganiaceae). Taxon 52: 364–365.

[L05] Lakshminarasimhan, P. 2005. Strychnos rupicola Pierre ex Dop (Loganiaceae)—a new record for India from the Andaman Islands. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47: 141–142.

[L95] Liogier, H. A. 1995. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae vol. 4. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

[M72] Mitra, S. N. 1972. Observations on the vegetation of the Upper Damodar catchment area. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 17–25.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[PS06] Pardeshi, S. N., & T. Srinivasu. 2006. Spigelia anthelmia L.—a new record from Maharashtra. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 48: 201–204.

[SK02] Struwe, L., J. W. Kadereit, J. Klackenberg, S. Nilsson, M. Thiv, K. B. von Hagen & V. A. Albert. 2002. Systematics, character evolution, and biogeography of Gentianaceae, including a new tribal and subtribal classification. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 21–309. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[T00] Thorne, R. F. 2000. The classification and geography of the flowering plants: dicotyledons of the class Angiospermae (subclasses Magnoliidae, Ranunculidae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Rosidae, Asteridae, and Lamiidae). The Botanical Review 66: 441–647.

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