Red crossbills Loxia curvirostra, copyright Elaine R. Wilson.

Belongs within: Carduelinae.

Loxia, the crossbills, is a primarily Holarctic genus of finches in which the tips of the bill are crossed over each other.

<==Loxia Linnaeus 1758 [Loxiinae]M02
    |--+--L. leucoptera Gmelin 1788BKB15, S05
    |  `--L. megaplagaJT12
    `--+--L. scoticaBKB15
       `--+--L. curvirostra Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 [incl. L. crucirostra Fries 1868S05]
          |    |--L. c. curvirostraM47
          |    |--L. c. altaiensisM47
          |    |--L. c. balearicaM47
          |    |--L. c. himalayensisM47
          |    |--L. c. mariaeM47
          |    |--L. c. minor (Brehm 1853) [=Crucirostra minor]S05
          |    `--L. c. polyogynaM47
          `--L. pytyopsittacusBKB15 [=L. curvirostra pityopsittacusM47]
Loxia incertae sedis:
  L. astrild Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. benghalensis Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. bicolor Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. butyracea Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. cana Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. collaria Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. cristata Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. cyanea Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. enucleator Linnaeus 1758L58 [=Corythus enucleatorJ23]
  L. eryocephala Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. flavicans Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. fusca Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. hordeacea Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. javensisG42
  L. malabarica Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. melanocephala Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. mexicana Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. panicivora Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. patevi Boev 1999M02
  L. punctulata Linnaeus 1758L58
  L. sanguinirostris Linnaeus 1758L58

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[G42] Gulliver, G. 1842. On the blood-corpuscles of the British ophidian reptiles, and observations on the blood-corpuscles of other oviparous Vertebrata. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 108–111.

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M47] Mayr, E. 1947. Ecological factors in speciation. Evolution 1: 263–288.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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