Lycaena

Scarce copper Lycaena virgaureae, copyright Algirdas.

Belongs within: Lycaenidae.

Lycaena, coppers, is a genus of butterflies found primarily in the Holarctic region. Males of this genus usually have the ground colour of the upper wing surface orange.

<==Lycaena Fabricius 1807WF02
    |--*L. phlaeas (L. 1761) [=Papilio phlaeas]WF02
    |    |--L. p. phlaeasWF02
    |    |--L. p. chinensis (Felder 1862) [=Chrysophanus phlaeas chinensis]WF02
    |    |--L. p. coccinea (Ford 1924) [=Heodes phlaeas coccineus, Chrysophanus phlaeas coccineus]WF02
    |    |--L. p. flavens (Ford 1924) [=Heodes phlaeas flavens, Chrysophanus phlaeas flavescens (l. c.)]WF02
    |    `--L. p. pseudophlaeas Lucas 1866 [=Chrysophanus phlaeas pseudophlaeas]WF02
    |--L. admetus [incl. L. admetus var. ripperti]P01
    |--L. aegon [incl. L. aegon var. aegidion]B89
    |--L. agestisL49
    |--L. alexisOO90
    |--L. amandaP01
    |--L. argiadesP01 [incl. L. argiades ab. coretasP01, L. argiades var. polysperchonB89]
    |--L. argiolusL49
    |--L. argus [=Polymmatus (Lycaena) argus]G20
    |--L. arion [incl. L. arion var. obscura]P01
    |--L. arotaS72
    |--L. astrarche (see below for synonymy)B89
    |--L. attenuata Lucas 1890L90
    |--L. battusOO90
    |--L. bellargusF92
    |--L. boeticaL49
    |--L. boldenarumO81
    |--L. cnejusWM66
    |--L. corydonF92
    |--L. cupreusS72
    |--L. damonP01
    |--L. edithaS72
    |--L. elpisWM66
    |--L. eros [incl. L. eros var. candalus]B89
    |--L. eumedonP01
    |--L. exilisL90
    |--L. hylasB89 [incl. L. abencerragusL49, L. hylas ab. golgusB89]
    |--L. icarus [incl. L. icarus ab. icarinus]B89
    |--L. kandarpaWM66
    |--L. karsandra Moore 1865WM66
    |--L. lysimonL90
    |--L. mariposaS72
    |--L. minimusB89
    |--L. nisa Wallace & Moore 1866WM66
    |--L. nivalisS72
    |--L. optilete [incl. L. optilete var. cyparrissus]B89
    |--L. orbitulus [incl. L. orbitulus var. dardanus]B89
    |--L. parrhasiusWM66
    |--L. pliniusWM66
    |--L. plutoWM66
    |--L. rubidusS72
    |    |--L. r. rubidusS72
    |    `--L. r. siriusS72
    |--L. sangra Moore 1865WM66
    |--L. scintillaO90
    |--L. semiargusP01
    |--L. telicanusL49
    |--L. theophrastesL49
    |--L. varunana Moore 1865WM66
    `--L. virgaureae (Linnaeus 1758)JP05

Lycaena astrarche [incl. L. astrarche var. aestiva, L. astrarche ab. allous, L. astrarche var. artaxerxes, L. astrarche var. calida Bellier de la Chavignerie 1862, L. astrarche var. canariensis Blach. 1887, L. astrarche var. montana, L. astrarche var. salmacis]B89

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B89] Blachier, C. 1889. Une Boarmia nouvelle, variétés inédites de lépidoptères, et chenille d’une hémérophile. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 255–260, pl. 4.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[L90] Lucas, T. P. 1890. On Queensland and other Australian macro-Lepidoptera, with localities, and descriptions of new species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (4): 1065–1099.

[O90] Oberthür, C. 1890. Note suivante. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: ccxli–ccxlii.

[OO90] Oberthür, C., & R. Oberthür. 1890. Lépidoptères dans les Pyrénées-Orientales. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: cc–cciii.

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[S72] Shields, O. 1972. Flower visitation records for butterflies (Lepidoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 189–203.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[WF02] Wang M. & Fan X. 2002. Butterflies Fauna Sinica: Lycaenidae. Henan Science and Technology Publishing House.

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