Lycium

Hawaii desert-thorn Lycium sandwicense, copyright Forest & Kim Starr.

Belongs within: Solanoideae.

Lycium, the boxthorns, is a cosmopolitan genus of often thorny shrubs with small leaves bearing globose berries (Liogier 1995).

Characters (from Liogier 1995): Erect or scandent shrubs, usually spiny; leaves fasciculate on short branches, short-petioled, without stipules; blades small, usually narrow, entire; flowers axillary, solitary or fascicled at nodes, often many along branches, 4- or 5-merous, actinomorphic or somewhat zygomorphic; calyx cup-shaped, persistent; corolla tubular-obconic or shortly funnel-shaped, lobes imbricate; stamens long-exserted, filaments inserted on corolla-tube, alternating with lobes; anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally; ovary 2- to many-loculed, style filiform, slender, enlarged distally, stigma small, 2-lobed, exserted; fruit a berry, globose, ovoid, juicy, few- to many-seeded; embryo curved.

<==Lycium L. 1753 [Lycieae]L95
    |--L. barbarumOB08 [incl. L. halimifoliumH93]
    |--L. pallidumOB08
    |    |--L. p. var. pallidumH93
    |    `--L. p. var. oligospermumH93
    `--+--L. cestroidesOB08
       |--Phrodus microphyllusOB08
       |--L. sandwicense [=L. carolinianum var. sandwicense]OB08
       `--GrabowskiaOB08
            |--G. boerhaviifoliaOB08
            `--G. duplicataOB08
Lycium incertae sedis:
  L. afrumC55
  L. americanum Jacq. 1753 (see below for synonymy)L95
  L. andersoniiBTA75
  L. australeBR65
  L. berlandieriRJ11
  L. brevipesH93
    |--L. b. var. brevipesH93
    `--L. b. var. hasseiH93
  L. californicumRJ11
  L. cooperiH93
  L. edgeworthiiPP07
  L. europaeumL98
  L. ferocissimum Miers 1854 [incl. L. campanulatum Meyer 1843 (n. n.), L. chinense Black 1909 (preoc.)]BR65
  L. fremontiiH93
  L. grandicalyxCV06
  L. horridumMM09
  L. parishiiH93
  L. shawiiL98
  L. torreyiH93
  L. verrucosumH93
  L. vulgareC01

Lycium americanum Jacq. 1753 [incl. L. americanum var. chrysocarpum Urb. & Ekm. 1929, L. tweedianum var. chrysocarpum (Urb. & Ekm.) Hitchc. 1932, L. spathulifolium Britt. 1905]L95

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BTA75] Baker, E. W., D. M. Tuttle & M. J. Abbatiello. 1975. The false spider mites of northwestern and north central Mexico (Acarina: Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 194: 1–23.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. OleaceaeCompositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C01] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—X. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 125–131.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[L98] Lienhard, C. 1998. Faune de France. France et Régions Limitrophes. 83. Psocoptères Euro-Méditerranéens. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles: Paris.

[L95] Liogier, H. A. 1995. Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: Spermatophyta-Dicotyledoneae vol. 4. Melastomataceae to Lentibulariaceae. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico.

[MM09] Mound, L. A., & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1–76.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

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