Lygaeidae

 Mating pair of Nysius ericae, copyright AfroBrazilian.

Belongs within: Panheteroptera.
Contains: Rhypodes, Blissus, Geocoris, Astacops, Oncopeltus, Lygaeus.

The Lygaeidae are a large family of bugs that mostly feed on seeds. The Blissinae, chinch bugs, are exceptional in feeding on sap from monocotyledonous plants. Members of the subfamilies Lygaeinae, Ischnorhynchinae and Orsillinae have the spiracles located dorsally on each segment of the abdomen; in members of the other subfamilies, at least some are located ventrally. The clavus is at least partially punctate in Ischnorhynchinae but impunctate in Lygaeinae and Orsillinae. Lygaeinae are often brightly coloured; the apical corial margin is straight and the subcosta is present on the hind wing. Orsillinae are typically a dull brownish yellow, the apical corial margin is sinuate in the mesal half, and the hind wing lacks a subcosta. Blissinae, Cyminae and Cryptorhamphinae have only the spiracles of the seventh abdominal segment located ventrally with all others positioned dorsally (Carver et al. 1991). The Geocorinae are short, stout bugs with a broad head and prominent eyes.

<==Lygaeidae
    |--Henicocoris [Henicocorinae]CGW91
    |    `--H. monteithiCGW91
    |--CryptorhamphinaeCGW91
    |    |--Cryptorhamphus orbusCGW91, G75
    |    `--GonystusCGW91
    |--CrompusCGW91 [IschnorhynchinaeGE05]
    |    |--C. oculatusCGW91
    |    `--C. opacusCGW91
    |--BledionotinaeCGW91
    |    |--AbpamphantusL88
    |    |--NeopamphantusL88
    |    |--PamphantusL88
    |    `--Austropamphantus woodwardiCGW91
    |--OxycareninaeCGW91
    |    |--Maruthas bicolor Distant 1914D14
    |    `--OxycarenusCGW91
    |         |--O. arctatusCGW91
    |         |--O. hyalinipennisG89
    |         `--O. luctuosus (Montr. 1861) [=Macroplax luctuosus]D14
    |--Pachygronthinae [Pachygronthidae]CGW91
    |    |--Stenophyella macretaCGW91
    |    |--Darwinocoris australicusCGW91
    |    |--Opistholeptus vulturnusWEE70
    |    `--PachygronthaCGW91
    |         |--P. austrinaCGW91
    |         `--P. singularisL88
    |--CyminaeCGW91
    |    |--OntiscusCGW91
    |    |    |--O. australisK08
    |    |    `--O. vitiensis Kirkaldy 1908K08
    |    `--CymusH01
    |         |--C. claviculus [=Heterogaster claviculus; incl. Lygaeus caricis]L49
    |         |--C. glandicolorH01
    |         `--C. novaezelandiaeM83
    |--BlissinaeCGW91
    |    |--AustralodemusCGW91
    |    |--HeinsiusCGW91
    |    |--ArchaeodemusCGW91
    |    |--BlissusG75
    |    |--Slaterellus [Slaterellinae]CGW91
    |    |    `--S. hackeriWEE70
    |    `--IschnodemusW96
    |         |--I. falicusW96
    |         `--I. quadrispinosusW96
    |--Geocorinae [Geocoridae]CGW91
    |    |--GeocorisCGW91
    |    |--Neocypus Distant 1914 [=Ocypus Montr. 1861 non Leach 1819]D14
    |    |    `--N. variegatus (Montr. 1861) [=Ocypus variegatus]D14
    |    |--GermalusCGW91
    |    |    |--*G. kinbergiM94
    |    |    |--G. elegantulusCGW91
    |    |    |--G. oceanicus Kirkaldy 1908 [incl. G. oceanicus var. interrupta Kirkaldy 1908]K08
    |    |    `--G. pacificus Kirkaldy 1908K08
    |    `--Stylogeocoris Montandon 1913M94
    |         |--*S. biroi Montandon 1913 [incl. Geocoris hakeae Eyles 1967]M94
    |         |--S. capricornutus (Kirkaldy 1908) [=Geocoris capricornutus]M94
    |         |--S. convivus (Distant 1901) [=Geocoris convivus]M94
    |         |--S. elongatus (Distant 1901) [=Geocoris elongatus]M94
    |         `--S. maculatus Malipatil 1994M94
    |--AphaninaeD14
    |    |--MizaldusD14
    |    |--Baladeana Distant 1914D14
    |    |    `--*B. macularia Distant 1914D14
    |    |--Lachnophoroides Distant 1914D14
    |    |    `--*L. ornatipennis Distant 1914D14
    |    |--PameraD14
    |    |    |--P. flavonotata Distant 1914D14
    |    |    |--P. fracticollisH01
    |    |    |--P. pacificaD14 [=Orthoea pacificaK08]
    |    |    `--P. vincta Say 1831D14 [=Orthoea vinctaK08; incl. O. periplanios Kirkaldy 1907K08]
    |    `--AphanusBM76
    |         |--A. adspersusH01
    |         |--A. alboacuminatusH01
    |         |--A. lynceusH01
    |         |--A. pinetiBM76
    |         `--A. vulgarisH01
    |--NysiusCGW91 [Orsillidae, OrsillinaeGE05]
    |    |--N. caledoniae Distant 1920 [incl. N. dissimilis Izzard 1936]JG19
    |    |--N. clevelandensisCGW91
    |    |--N. contiguus Walker 1872 [incl. N. proximus Walker 1872]D01b
    |    |--N. ericae [incl. N. maculatus]H01
    |    |--N. huttoniWS04
    |    |--N. jacobeaeH01
    |    |--N. jamaicensis Dall. 1852 [incl. N. providus Uhler 1894]D01b
    |    |--N. liliputanus Eyles & Ashlock 1969L02
    |    |--N. mundus Walker 1872 (n. d.)D01b
    |    |--N. pallipennis Walker 1872 (n. d.)D01b
    |    |--N. punctipennisH01
    |    |--N. scolopax (Say 1831) [=Lygaeus scolopax, Belonochilus scolopax]D01b
    |    |--N. spectabilis Distant 1901JG19
    |    |--N. subcinctus Walker 1872 (n. d.)D01b
    |    |--N. thymiH01
    |    |--N. turneriWEE70
    |    `--N. vinitor Bergroth 1891 [incl. N. andrewsi Izzard 1936]JG19
    `--LygaeinaeGE05
         |--Melanerythrus mactansG75, C91
         |--Caenocoris nerii [=Lygaeus nerii; incl. L. semirubes Walker 1872]D01b
         |--AstacopsWEE70
         |--OncopeltusCGW91
         |--LygaeusWS04
         |--ArocatusWEE70
         |    |--A. roeseliiH01
         |    `--A. rusticus (Stål 1866) (see below for synonymy)D01b
         |--Tropidothorax Bergr. 1894 [=Melanospilus Stål 1868 (preoc.)]D01b
         |    |--T. concisus (Walker 1872) [=Lygaeus concisus]D01b
         |    `--T. elegansH01
         |--NicuesaD01b
         |    |--N. affinis Distant 1901D01b
         |    `--N. speciosusD01b
         |--SpilostethusWEE70
         |    |--S. hospesC91
         |    |--S. macilentusG89
         |    |--S. militarisG89
         |    `--S. saxatilisR13
         |--ScopiastesWEE70
         |    |--S. affinis Distant 1901D01b
         |    |--S. bicolor Distant 1901D01b
         |    |--S. degeeriD01b
         |    |--S. militaris Distant 1901D01b
         |    `--S. nigripes Distant 1901D01b
         `--GraptostethusCGW91
              |--G. diffusus (Walker 1872) [=Lygaeus diffusus]D01b
              |--G. grandis Distant 1901D01b
              |--G. maculatusD01b
              |--G. quadratomaculatus (Kirby 1891) [=Lygaeus quadratomaculatus]D01b
              |--G. rufifemoratusD01b
              |--G. pictus Distant 1901D01b
              |--G. servus (Fabr. 1787) [=Cimex servus]D01b
              |--G. verticalis (Dall. 1852) [=Lygaeus verticalis]D01b
              `--G. vitiensis Kirkaldy 1908K08
Lygaeidae incertae sedis:
  Lepiorsillus tekapoensis Malipatil 1979L02
  RhypodesL02
  TrapezonotusS54
    |--T. agrestisH01
    |--T. arenariusS54
    |--T. convivusH01
    |--T. desertusS54
    `--T. disparS54
  Hunanilarva micra Lin 1986K00
  NeseisO94
  OceanidesO94
  TrypetocorisC88
  Raglius alboacuminatusV09
  Sphagisticus nebrilosusBM76
  EmblethisBM76
    |--E. brachynotusH01
    |--E. ciliatusH01
    |--E. denticollis [incl. E. denticollis var. anodon]H01
    |--E. verbasciH01
    `--E. vicariusBM76
  Sphaerobius insignisBM76
  Apterola pedestrisBM76
  Philomyrmex viduusH01
  Metopoplax origaniH01
  Ligyrocoris sylvestrisH01
  LamprodemaH01
    |--L. maurumH01
    `--L. rufipes [incl. L. rufipes var. femoratum Horváth 1901]H01
  Acompus rufipesH01
  PeritrechusH01
    |--P. ambiguusH01
    |--P. geniculatusH01
    `--P. nubilusH01
  Calyptonotus rolandriH01
  Diomphalus hispidulusH01
  Brachylygaeus mutilatusG75
  TasmanicolaCGW91
  Theognis australisK08
  NoteolethaeusWEE74
  EthaltomarusWEE74
  CistaliaB38
    |--C. explanata Barber 1938B38
    `--C. signoretiB38
  Leipolygaeus similis Lin 1985RJ93
  ‘Noliphus’ biplagiatus Walker 1871D01a
  ‘Noliphus’ distinctus Walker 1871D01a
  Oedancala dorsalisRD77
  Stilbocoris natalensisRD77
  Gastrodes grossipesRD77
  Heraeus pacificusPP72
  Panaorus albomaculatusYR12
  Cymocoris basalisYR12
  Lygaenocoris prynadaiYR12
  Polyacanthus echii [=Lygaeus echii, Aphanus echii, Pachymerus echii; incl. Lygaeus aterrimus, Pa. aterrimus]L49
  Stenogaster lavaterae [=Lygaeus lavaterae; incl. S. tardus]L49
  Ophthalmicus erythrocephalus [=Salda erythrocephala; incl. O. frontalis]L49

Arocatus rusticus (Stål 1866) [=Tetralaccus rusticus; incl. Astacops caligatus Walker 1872, Lygaeus ruficollis Walker 1872, L. subjectus Walker 1872]D01b

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B38] Barber, H. G. 1938. A new species of Cistalia (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (3): 87–88.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C88] Craw, R. 1988. Continuing the synthesis between panbiogeography, phylogenetic systematics and geology as illustrated by empirical studies on the biogeography of New Zealand and the Chatham Islands. Systematic Zoology 37 (3): 291–310.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D01a] Distant, W. L. 1901a. Rhynchotal notes.—IX. Heteroptera: fam. Coreidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 416–432.

[D01b] Distant, W. L. 1901b. Rhynchotal notes.—X. Heteroptera: fam. Lygaeidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 531–541.

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso “Esploratore” dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K00] Koteja, J. 2000. Advances in the study of fossil coccids (Hemiptera: Coccinea). Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 69: 187–218.

[L02] Larivière, M.-C. 2002. Primary types of Heteroptera in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection: Pentatomomorpha described from New Zealand before the year 2000. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 79–85.

[L88] Liebherr, J. K. 1988. General patterns in West Indian insects, and graphical biogeographic analysis of some circum-Caribbean Platynus beetles (Carabidae). Systematic Zoology 37 (4): 385–409.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[M94] Malipatil, M. B. 1994. Revision of Australian Geocoris Fallén and Stylogeocoris Montandon (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae: Geocorinae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 299–327.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[PP72] Parkin, P., D. T. Parkin, A. W. Ewing & H. A. Ford. 1972. A report on the arthropods collected by the Edinburgh University Galapagos Islands expedition, 1968. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (2): 100–107.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S54] Seidenstücker, G. 1954. Gulde’s “forma alpina” von Trapezonotus arenarius (Ins. Het. Lygaeidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 101–102.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WS04] Wang, Q., & G. L. Shi. 2004. Mating frequency, duration, and circadian mating rhythm of New Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni White (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). New Zealand Entomologist 27: 113–117.

[W96] Wheeler, A. G., Jr. 1996. Ischnodemus falicus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae): first record from ornamental grasses, and seasonality on prairie cordgrass in Pennsylvania. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 195–198.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[WEE74] Woodward, T. E., V. F. Eastop & J. W. Evans. 1974. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 52–57. Melbourne University Press.

[YR12] Yao, Y., D. Ren, D. A. Rider & W. Cai. 2012. Phylogeny of the infraorder Pentatomomorpha based on fossil and extant morphology, with description of a new fossil family from China. PLoS One 7 (5): e37289.

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