Lymexylidae

Atractocerus sp., copyright Goutham K.

Belongs within: Tenebrionoidea.

The Lymexylidae, timberworm beetles, are a group of elongate, soft-bodied insects that bore into hard wood. Species of Lymexylon and the subfamily Atractocerinae have the elytra shortened, exposing much or all of the abdomen, whereas the elytra more or less cover the abdomen in Hylecoetinae and Melittomminae. A distinct cervical constriction is present on the occiput in subfamilies other than Hylecoetinae. Antennae are long and filiform in Lymexylon whereas they are shortened with fusiform segments in Atractocerinae (Paulus 2004).

Characters (from Richards & Davies 1977): Elongate with soft integument. Antennae short, more or less serrate. Maxillary palpi flabellate in male. All coxae more or less projecting. Tarsi 5-segmented, filiform. Abdomen with 6 or 7 visible sternites. Larva with enlarged prothorax and well-developed legs; 9th abdominal tergite often greatly modified but not bearing paired processes.

<==Lymexylidae [Atractoceridae, Lymexilidae, Lymexyloidea, Lymexylonidae]
|--HylecoetinaeP04
| |--Elateroides Schaeffer 1766 [incl. Hylecerus Jacquelin du Val 1863, Xylecoethus Gyllenhal 1827]Y02
| | |--E. dermestoides (Linnaeus 1761)B14
| | `--E. lugubrisB14
| `--Hylecoetus Latreille 1806PN02 [=Hyloceotus Melsheimer 1853Y02, Hyloecotus Lacordaire 1857Y02]
| |--H. cribricollis Fairmaire 1889F89
| |--H. dermestoidesP04 [=Lymexylon (Hylocoetus) dermestoideG20]
| |--H. flabellicorne (Scheider 1791)P04
| |--H. formosanus Miwa 19356P04
| `--H. lugubris Say 1835P04
`--+--Melittomminae [Melittommatinae]P04
| |--Australymexylon Wheeler 1986P04
| | `--A. fuscipennisP04
| `--+--Protomelittomma Wheeler 1986P04
| | `--P. insulare (Fairmaire 1893)P04
| `--+--Melittommopsis Lane 1955P04
| `--Melittomma Murray 1867P04 [incl. Neohylecoetus Kurosawa 1956Y02]
| |--M. insulareRD77
| |--M. pervagusB74
| `--M. sericeum Harris 1838P04
`--+--Lymexylon Fabricius 1775 [Lymexylinae]P04
| |--L. amianum Kurosawa 1985P04
| |--L. australe Erichs. 1842M86
| `--L. navale (Linnaeus 1758)P04
`--Atractocerinae [Atractocerini]P04
|--Urtea Paulus 2004P04
| `--*U. graeca Paulus 2004P04
`--+--Hymaloxylon Kurosawa 1985P04
| |--*H. quercus (Gardner 1935) [=Atractocerus quercus]P04
| `--H. aspoecki Paulus 2004P04
`--+--Fusicornis Philippi 1866P04
| |--F. gracilicornis Schenkling 1914P04
| |--F. tasmaniensis Lea 1917P04
| `--F. valdivianus Philippi 1866P04
`--+--Arractocoetus Kurosawa 1985P04
| |--A. bicolor (Strohmeyer 1910)P04
| |--A. bifasciatus (Gestro 1874)P04
| |--A. blairi (Gardner 1936)P04
| |--A. bruijni (Gestro 1874)P04
| |--A. monticola Kurosawa 1985P04
| |--A. morio (Pascoe 1860)P04
| |--A. niger (Strohmeyer 1910)P04
| |--A. nipponicus (Nakane 1985)P04
| |--A. siebersi (Karny 1922)P04
| `--A. tonkineus (Pic 1948)P04
`--+--Raractocetus Kurosawa 1985P04
| |--R. emarginatus (Cast. 1836) (see below for synonymy)P04
| `--R. kreuslerae (Pascoe 1864)P04
`--Atractocerus Palisot de Beauvois 1801 [incl. Macrogaster Thunberg 1805]P04
|--A. almeidei Arauto 1958P04
|--A. ater Kraatz 1895P04
|--A. atricollis Pic 1948P04
|--A. brasiliensis Lepineux & Serville 1825 (see below for synonymy)P04
|--A. brevicornis (Linnaeus 1766)P04 (see below for synonymy)
|--A. crassicornis Clark 1931P04
|--A. gracilicornisY02
|--A. kreuslerae Pascoe 1864M86
|--A. procerus Schenkling 1914P04
|--A. reversus Walker 1858P04
|--A. schenklingi Heller 1916P04
|--A. termiticola Wasman 1902P04
|--A. victoriensis Blackburn 1891P04
`--A. wheeleri Lubkin 2003P04

Atractocerus brasiliensis Lepineux & Serville 1825 [incl. A. antillarum Vitrac 1913, A. dipterorum Cast. 1840, A. dipterum Perty 1834, A. dipterus Brullé 1857, A. molorchoides Guérin 1844]P04

Atractocerus brevicornis (Linnaeus 1766)P04 [incl. A. abbreviatus F. 1787P04, *Macrogaster abbreviatusP04, A. africanus Bohemann 1848P04, A. frontalis Kl. 1855P04, A. madagascariensis Cast. 1836P04, A. necydaloides Palisot de Beauv. 1801P04, Lymexylon (Atractoceros) necidaloideG20, A. pygmaeus Kraatz 1895P04]

Raractocetus emarginatus (Cast. 1836) [incl. R. celebensis (Gestro 1874), R. debilis (Walker 1858), R. fissicollis (Fairm. 1885), R. horni (Bourgeois 1905), R. luteolus (Fairm. 1882), R. mirabilis (Miwa 1935)]P04

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B74] Britton, E. B. 1974. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 62–89. Melbourne University Press.

[F89] Fairmaire, L. 1889. Coléoptères de l’intérieur de la Chine. 5e partie. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: 5–84.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[M86] Masters, G. 1886. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Part IV. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 259–380.

[P04] Paulus, H. F. 2004. Urtea graeca nov. gen. et nov. spec., der erste Vertreter der tropischen Atractocerinae in Europa sowie eine Beschreibung von Hymaloxylon aspoecki nov. spec. aus Yunnan (China) (Coleoptera, Cucujiformia, Lymexylidae, Atractocerinae nov. status). Denisia 13: 277–290.

[PN02] Pollock, D. A., & B. B. Normark. 2002. The life cycle of Micromalthus debilis LeConte (1878) (Coleoptera: Archostemata: Micromalthidae): historical review and evolutionary perspective. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 40 (2): 105–112.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[Y02] Young, D. K. 2002. Lymexylidae Fleming 1821. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 261–262. CRC Press.

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