Nasturtium tree Macaranga tanarius, copyright Tatiana Gerus.

Belongs within: Euphorbiaceae.

Macaranga is a genus of trees found in the Old World tropics that often dominate disturbed habitats in lowland rainforests. Many species form symbiotic associations with ants living inside hollow internodes (Fiala et al. 1999).

Characters (from Flora of China): Trees or shrubs, mostly dioecious (exceptionally monoecious); indumentum usually of simple hairs and whitish to reddish glandular scales. Leaves alternate; stipules small or enlarged; petiole insertion often peltate; leaf blade undivided or lobed, base with glands, abaxially glandular-scaly; venation palmate or pinnate. Inflorescences axillary, sometimes at old leafless nodes, unbranched, branched, or females capitate or 1-flowered, unisexual, very rarely bisexual; bracts sometimes with glands. Flowers 1 or few to many per bract. Male flowers: calyx closed in bud; sepals 2-4, valvate; petals absent; disk absent; stamens [1–]2–22[–30]; filaments free or shortly connate; anthers 3- or 4-locellate; pistillode absent. Female flowers: calyx cup-shaped or urceolate, apex denticulate or lobed, sometimes truncate, caducous or persistent; petals absent; disk absent; ovary 1–6-locular; styles simple, free, rarely shortly connate, stigmatic surface papillose. Fruit a capsule, (1 or)2- or 3(–6)-locular, smooth or spiny, often glandular scaly. Seeds subglobose, smooth.

    |--M. denticulataFM97
    |--M. diepenhorstiiFM97
    |--M. giganteaFM97
    |--M. gigantifoliaFM97
    |--M. indicaFM97
    |--M. tanariusFM97
    |--M. trichocarpaFM97
    |--M. pruinosa groupFJ99
    |    |--M. hoseiFJ99
    |    |--M. pearsoniiFJ99
    |    |--M. pruinosaFJ99
    |    `--M. puberulaFJ99
    |--M. (sect. Adenoceras) endertiiFM97
    |--M. sect. JavanicaeFM97
    |    |--M. costulataFM97
    |    |--M. heyneiFM97
    |    `--M. kinabaluensisFM97
    |--M. sect. PachystemonFJ99
    |    |--M. aetheadeniaFJ99
    |    |--M. beccarianaFJ99
    |    |--M. caladiifoliaFM97
    |    |--M. calcicolaFJ99
    |    |    |--M. c. var. calcicolaFM97
    |    |    `--M. c. var. calcifugaFM97
    |    |--M. constrictaFJ99
    |    |--M. curtisiiFM97
    |    |    |--M. c. var. curtisiiFM97
    |    |    `--M. c. var. glabraFM97
    |    |--M. depressaFJ99
    |    |    |--M. d. f. depressaFM97
    |    |    `--M. d. f. strigosaFM97
    |    |--M. havilandiiFJ99
    |    |--M. hullettiiFJ99
    |    |    |--M. h. ssp. hullettiiFM97
    |    |    `--M. h. ssp. borneensisFM97
    |    |--M. hypoleucaFJ99
    |    |--M. indistinctaFJ99
    |    |--M. kingiiFJ99
    |    |    |--M. k. var. kingiiFJ99
    |    |    `--M. k. var. platyphyllaFJ99
    |    |--M. lamellataFJ99
    |    |--M. motleyanaFJ99
    |    |    |--M. m. ssp. motleyanaFM97
    |    |    `--M. m. ssp. griffithianaFM97
    |    |--M. petanostylaFJ99
    |    |--M. puncticulataFM97
    |    |--M. quadricornisFM97
    |    |--M. recurvataFM97
    |    |--M. rostrataFM97
    |    |--M. sarcocarpaFM97
    |    |--M. trachyphyllaFJ99
    |    `--M. trilobaFJ99
    |--M. sect. Pseudo-RottleraFM97
    |    |--M. andamanicaFM97
    |    |--M. baccaureifoliaFM97
    |    |--M. brevipetiolataFM97
    |    |--M. fulvaFM97
    |    |--M. lowiiFM97
    |    |--M. praestansFM97
    |    |--M. rarispinaFM97
    |    |--M. repandodentataFM97
    |    |--M. setosaFM97
    |    `--M. strigosissimaFM97
    |--M. sect. StachyellaFM97
    |    |--M. amissaFM97
    |    `--M. coniferaFM97
    `--M. sect. WinklerianaeFJ99
        |--M. winkleriFJ99
        `--M. winkleriellaFJ99
Macaranga incertae sedis:
  M. aleuritoidesNM02
  M. digynaL99
  M. hispidaFM97
  M. inamoenaB00
  M. involucrataB00
  M. nepalensisDD73
  M. peltataS02
  M. pynaertiiDP72
  M. quadriglandulosaNM02
  M. roxburghianusDD73
  M. schweinfurthiiDP72
Nomen nudum: Macaranga bancana Whitmore & Davies in Fiala, Jakob et al. 1999FJ99

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[DD73] Deb, D. B., & R. M. Dutta. 1973. Contribution to the flora of Tirap Frontier Division. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 547–573.

[DP72] Deighton, F. C., & K. A. Pirozynski. 1972. Microfungi. V. More hyperparasitic hyphomycetes. Mycological Papers 128: 1–110.

[FM97] Federle, W., U. Maschwitz, B. Fiala, M. Riederer & B. Hölldobler. 1997. Slippery ant-plants and skilful climbers: selection and protection of specific ant partners by epicuticular wax blooms in Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae). Oecologia 112: 217–224.

[FJ99] Fiala, B., A. Jakob, U. Maschwitz & K. E. Linsenmair. 1999. Diversity, evolutionary specialization and geographic distribution of a mutualistic ant-plant complex: Macaranga and Crematogaster in south east Asia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66: 305–331.

[L99] Leclercq, J. 1999. Hyménoptères sphecides crabroniens du genre Ectemnius Dahlbom, 1845. Espèces d’Asie et d’Océanie et groupes d’espèces de la faune mondiale. Notes Fauniques de Gembloux 36: 3–83.

[NM02] Novotny, V., S. E. Miller, Y. Basset, L. Cizek, P. Drozd, K. Darrow & J. Leps. 2002. Predictably simple: assemblages of caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on rainforest trees in Papua New Guinea. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences 269: 2337–2344.

[S02] Santharam, V. 2002. Fruit and nectar resources in a moist deciduous forest and their use by birds—a preliminary report. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 537–543.

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