The Upper Carboniferous lophospirid Worthenia, from here.

Belongs within: Gastropoda.
Contains: Trochonematidae, Lophospiridae, Euomphalidae, Raphistomatidae, Helicotomidae, Omphalotrochidae, Platyschismatinae, Turbonellininae.

The Ordovician to Middle Triassic Trochonematoidea included the gastropod families Trochonematidae and Lophospiridae. The two families shared a characteristic shell morphology: a median angulation running along or above the midline of each spire (replaced by a shallow sinus in some Trochonematidae), with further angulations above and/or below. The inner lining of the shell was nacreous. In the Lophospiridae, the aperture of the shell included a deep labral sinus or slit, but in the Trochonematidae this was replaced by an internal channel (Knight et al. 1960).

<==Macluritida [Macluritiformes, Macluritina, Macluritiones]F12
    |--Trochonematoidea [Lophospiroidea, Trochonematacea, Trochonematata, Trochonematiformes, Trochonematoidei]GS75
    |    |--TrochonematidaeBR05
    |    `--LophospiridaeBR05
    |--Macluritidae [Macluraeacea, Maclureadae, Maclureidae, Macluriidae, Macluritacea, Macluritoidea]KC60
    |    |--Teiichispira Yochelson & Jones 1958LK84
    |    |    `--T. cornucopiaeBRW98
    |    |--Palliseria Wilson 1924 [incl. Mitrospira Kirk 1930]KC60
    |    |    |--*P. robusta Wilson 1924KC60
    |    |    `--P. longwelliK52
    |    |--Macluritella Kirk 1927LK84
    |    |    |--M. stantoni Kirk 1927F12
    |    |    `--M. walcotti (Howell 1946)TTE93
    |    `--Maclurites Lesueur 1818 (see below for synonymy)KC60
    |         |--*M. magna Lesueur 1818KC60
    |         |--M. altunshanensis Yu & Ning 1983YN83
    |         |--M. bigsbyiYN83
    |         |--M. loganiC60
    |         `--M. manitobensis (Whiteaves 1887)TTE93
    |--Ophiletidae [Ophiletinae, Ophiletoidea]BR17
    |    |--Ecculiomphalus Portlock 1843BR05 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--*E. bucklandi Portlock 1843KC60
    |    |--Dirhachopea Ulrich & Bridge 1931KC60
    |    |    `--*D. normalis Ulrich & Bridge 1931KC60
    |    |--Euconia Ulrich in Ulrich & Scofield 1897 [incl. Jarlopsis Heller 1954]KC60
    |    |    `--*E. etna (Billings 1865) [=Pleurotomaria etna]KC60
    |    |--Calaurops Whitfield 1886 [incl. Orthostoma Conrad 1838 non Ehrenberg 1831]KC60
    |    |    `--*C. lituiformis Whitfield 1886KC60
    |    `--Ophileta Vanuxem 1842BR05
    |         |  i. s.: O. subangulataT10
    |         |--O. (Ophileta) [incl. Polygyrata Weller 1903]KC60
    |         |    `--*O. (O.) complanata Vanuxem 1842KC60
    |         `--O. (Ozarkispira Walcott 1924)KC60
    |              `--O. (*O.) leo (Walcott 1924) [=*Ozarkispira leo]KC60
    `--Euomphaloidea [Euomphalacea, Euomphalina, Euomphalioidei, Euomphalomorpha, Rhaphistomatoidea]KC60
         |  i. s.: Triassocirrus infracarinatumTE01
         |--Lesueurilla Koken 1898BR05 [=Lesuerella Perner 1903KC60; incl. Pachystrophia Perner 1903KC60; Lesueurillidae]
         |    `--*L. infundibulum (Koken 1897) [=Maclurea infundibulum]BR17
         |--Straparollina Billings 1865KC60 [StraparollinidaeBR17, Straparollinoidea]
         |    `--*S. pelagica Billings 1865KC60
         |    |--Hypomphalocirrus Linsley 1978LK84
         |    |--Liomphalus Chapman 1916LK84
         |    |    `--L. northi (Etheridge 1890)TTE93
         |    `--Omphalocirrus De Ryckholt 1860BR17 (see below for synonymy)
         |         `--*O. goldfussii (d’Archiac & de Verneuil 1842)BR17 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--Spinicharybdis Rohr & Packard 1982 [Spinicharybdiinae]BR17
         |    |    `--*S. wilsoni Rohr & Packard 1982BR17
         |    `--Euomphalopterus Roemer 1876BR17 [=Evomphalopterus Fischer 1885KC60; Euomphalopterinae]
         |         |  i. s.: E. gasconensisLYR78
         |         |--E. (Euomphalopterus) [incl. Bathmopterus Kirk 1928]LYR78
         |         |    `--*E. (E.) alatus (Wahlenberg 1819) [=Turbinites alatus]BR17
         |         `--E. (Pleuromphalus Lindström 1884)LYR78
         |              `--E. (*P.) seductor (Perner 1903) [=*Pleuromphalus seductor]KC60
              |  i. s.: Lunulazona Sadlick & Nielsen 1963PE02, KB04
              |         Naticasinus Pan & Erwin 2002PE02, KB04
              |           `--*N. sinus Pan & Erwin 2002KB04
              |         Pandospira Waterhouse 1963W63
              |           |--*P. fimbriae Waterhouse 1963W63
              |           `--P. nuda Waterhouse 1963W63
              |         Keeneeia Etheridge 1902W63
              |           |--*K. platyschismoides Etheridge 1902W63
              |           |--K. ocula (Sowerby 1838) [=Trochus oculus, Euomphalus oculus, Platyschisma oculus]W63
              |           `--K. trochiforme Fletcher 1958F71
                   |--Sinuopea Ulrich 1911BR05
                   |    `--*S. sweeti (Whitfield 1880) [=Holopea sweeti]KC60
                   |--Horiostomella Perner 1903KC60
                   |    `--*H. otiosa Perner 1903KC60
                   `--Sellinema Perner 1903KC60
                        `--*S. dive Perner 1903KC60

Ecculiomphalus Portlock 1843BR05 [=Eccyliomphalus Agassiz 1846KC60; incl. Eccyliopterus Remelé 1888KC60; Ecculiomphalinae]

Maclurites Lesueur 1818 [=Maclurea Emmons 1842, Maclureia Bronn 1848, Maclurita deBlainville 1823; incl. Maclurina Ulrich & Scofield 1897]KC60

Omphalocirrus De Ryckholt 1860BR17 [=Coelocentrus Zittel 1882KC60, Polyenaulus Etheridge 1917KC60; incl. Arctomphalus Tolmachov 1926KC60]

*Omphalocirrus goldfussii (d’Archiac & de Verneuil 1842)BR17 [=Euomphalus goldfussiiBR17, *Coelocentrus goldfussiKC60, *Polyenaulus goldfussiKC60]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[C60] Cox, L. R. 1960. Gastropoda: general characteristics of Gastropoda. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I84–I169. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F12] Frýda, J. 2012. Phylogeny of Palaeozoic gastropods inferred from their ontogeny. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 395–435. Springer.

[GS75] Golikov, A. N., & Y. I. Starobogatov. 1975. Systematics of prosobranch gastropods. Malacologia 15 (1): 185–232.

[K52] Knight, J. B. 1952. Primitive fossil gastropods and their bearing on gastropod classification. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (13): 1–56, 2 pls.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[KB04] Kues, B. S., R. L. Batten, D. H. Erwin & Pan H.-Z. 2004. A Late Permian Chinese gastropod species, possibly larval, in the Middle Pennsylvanian of New Mexico. Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 420-423.

[LK84] Linsley, R. M., & W. M. Kier. 1984. The Paragastropoda: a proposal for a new class of Paleozoic Mollusca. Malacologia 25 (1): 241–254.

[LYR78] Linsley, R. M., E. L. Yochelson & D. M. Rohr. 1978. A reinterpretation of the mode of life of some Paleozoic frilled gastropods. Lethaia 11: 105-112.

[PE02] Pan, H.-Z., & D. H. Erwin. 2002. Gastropods from the Permian of Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces, south China. Journal of Paleontology 76 (Memoir 56): 1–49.

[RFD04] Rohr, D. M., M. F. Fix & G. Darrough. 2004. Life association of shell and operculum of Ceratopea Ulrich, 1911 (Ordovician; Gastropoda). Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 218-220.

[T10] Taylor, T. G. 1910. The Archaeocyathinae from the Cambrian of South Australia with an account of the morphology and affinities of the whole class. Memoirs of the Royal Society of South Australia 2 (2): 55-188.

[TE01] Tong, J., & D. H. Erwin. 2001. Triassic gastropods of the southern Qinling Mountains, China. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 92: 1–47.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

[W63] Waterhouse, J. B. 1963. Permian gastropods of New Zealand. Part 4—Platyceratacea, Anomphalacea, Neritacea, and correlations. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics 6 (5): 817–842.

[YN83] Yu W. & Ning H. 1983. Middle Ordovician gastropods from Ruoqiang, Xinjiang. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 22 (2): 199–203.

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