Macrochelidae

Holocelaeno sp., copyright Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.

Belongs within: Eviphidoidea.
Contains: Macrocheles.

The Macrochelidae are a group of mites that are often predatory on nematodes. Many species are found in restricted substrates such as animal dung or nests, and disperse between habitat sites by phoresis on flying insects. Species of Macrocheles and Neopodocinum have been shown to exhibit varying degrees of specificity to their preferred insect hosts. Conversely, some genera such as Geholaspis, as well as some basal species groups of Macrocheles, are non-phoretic and found in more permanent subsoil habitats (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Members of the genus Holostaspella possess a prow-like projection of the holodorsal shield bearing vertical setae, and sclerotised ridges or spurs on the femora of legs II of the female. Geholaspis have a unipartite gnathotectum and five pairs of setae on the ventro-anal shield in females. In Glyptholaspis, the holodorsal shield is markedly crenulate-reticulate, and the sternal shield bears a raised polygonal design extending postero-laterally around the genital shield to the level of the posterior of coxae III (Evans & Till 1979).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Peritremes generally looped proximally, joining the stigmata posteriorly. Genu I usually with two ventral setae; tarsus I usually without claws; paired paradactyli of pretarsi II-IV usually broad and extending to apex of claws, divided or deeply serrated distally. Male chelicera with spermatodactyl. Female with pair of conspicuous accessory sclerites beneath lateral margins of epigynal shield.

<==Macrochelidae [Macrochelinae]
    |--Geholaspis Berlese 1918K60, ET79 [incl. Cyrtocheles Valle 1953ET79]
    |    |--G. (Geholaspis)S22
    |    |    |--*G. (G.) longispinosus (Kramer 1876)FP60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--G. (G.) longulus [=Macrocheles (G.) longulus]S22
    |    `--G. (Longicheles Valle 1953)LKW09, ET79
    |         `--G. (L.) mandibularis (Berlese 1904)LKW09, K91 (see below for synonymy)
    `--+--EuholocelaenoK60
       |--Holostaspella Berlese 1903K60, H98 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--*H. sculpta (Berlese 1903) [=Holostaspis (*Holostaspella) sculpta]ET79
       |    |--H. ainscoughi Krantz 1967FH93
       |    |--H. ancylothrix Krantz 1967FH93
       |    |--H. aplodontiae Krantz 1967FH93
       |    |--H. ateucha Halliday 1988H98
       |    |--H. bifoliata (Trägårdh 1952) [=Areolaspis bifoliatus]H98
       |    |--H. bisignata Berlese 1918 [=H. (Prholaspina) bisignata]V25
       |    |--H. caelata Berlese 1910V25
       |    |--H. crenulata Krantz 1967H98
       |    |--H. exornata Filipponi & Pegazzano 1967H98
       |    |--H. foai Berlese 1910V25
       |    |--H. micrarrhena Berlese 1916 [=H. (Prholaspina) micrarrhena]V25
       |    |--H. moderata Berlese 1920 [incl. H. egregia Vitzthum 1925]H98
       |    |--H. ornataET79
       |    |--H. polytrema Krantz 1967FH93
       |    |--H. punctataLKW09
       |    `--H. spinosissima Berlese 1916V25
       `--+--MacrochelesK60
          `--+--TrigonholaspisK60
             |--NeopodocinumK60
             |    |--N. coprophilum Vitzthum 1924V25
             |    `--N. maius Berlese 1911V25
             `--Holocelaeno Berlese 1910K60, FH93 (see below for synonymy)
                  |--H. amygdaligera Berlese 1918 [=Holocaelano amygdaligera]FH93
                  |--H. axtelli Krantz 1967FH93
                  |--H. berlesei Krantz 1967FH93
                  |--H. brachychaeta Krantz 1967FH93
                  |--H. bursiformis Berlese 1910FH93
                  |--H. condyla Krantz 1967FH93
                  |--H. coprophila (Turk 1948)FH93 [=*Neoholaspis coprophilusFP60]
                  |--H. cosmothorax Krantz 1967FH93
                  |--H. floridana (Evans & Hyatt 1963) [=Macrocheles floridanus]FH93
                  |--H. fuscata Berlese 1916 [=Holocaeleno mitis var. fuscata]FH93
                  |--H. grandis (Evans & Hyatt 1963) [=Macrocheles grandis]FH93
                  |--H. longicoma (Berlese 1910) [=Macrocheles longicoma]FH93
                  |--H. melisiLKW09
                  |--H. mitis (Berlese 1910) [=Macrocheles mitis]FH93
                  |--H. ritcheri Krantz 1967FH93
                  |--H. rotunda (Berlese 1910) [=Macrocheles rotunda]FH93
                  |--H. scapularis (Evans & Hyatt 1963) [=Macrocheles scapularis]FH93
                  `--H. turki (Evans & Hyatt 1963) [=Macrocheles turki]FH93
Macrochelidae incertae sedis:
  Lordocheles rykeiLKW09
  Aethosoma Krantz 1962FH93
    `--A. burchellestes Krantz 1962FH93
  Ancistrocheles Krantz 1962FH93
    `--A. bregetovae Krantz 1962FH93
  Gonatothrix Krantz 1988FH93
    `--G. carinata Krantz 1988FH93
  Glyptholaspis Filipponi & Pegazzano 1960FP60
    |--*G. fimicola (Sellnick 1931)FP60 (see below for synonymy)
    |--G. americana (Berlese 1888)FP60 (see below for synonymy)
    |--G. asperrima (Berlese 1905) [=Holostaspis asperrimus, Macrocheles asperrimus]FP60
    |--G. confusa (Foà 1900) (see below for synonymy)FP60
    `--G. pontina Filipponi & Pegazzano 1960FP60

*Geholaspis (Geholaspis) longispinosus (Kramer 1876)ET79 [=Gamasus longispinosusFP60, Holostaspis longispinosusS22, Macrocheles (*Geholaspis) longispinosusFP60]

Geholaspis (Longicheles) mandibularis (Berlese 1904)LKW09, K91 [=Holostaspis mandibularisE57, Macrocheles (Geholaspis) mandibularisS22]

Glyptholaspis americana (Berlese 1888)FP60 [=Holostaspis marginatus var. americanusFP60, Macrocheles americanusFP60; incl. H. vagabundus var. insulanus Trägardh 1931FP60, Nothrholaspis montivagus Womersley 1942FP60, M. montivagusS22, M. vagabundus var. neotropicus Berlese 1918FP60, M. plumipes Hull 1918FP60, Holostaspella spectabilis Berlese 1916FH93, M. tardior Hull 1925FH93, Holostaspis vagabundus Berlese 1889FP60, M. vagabundusFP60]

Glyptholaspis confusa (Foà 1900) [=Holostaspis confusus, Macrocheles americanus var. confusus; incl. M. vagabundus var. australis Berlese 1918]FP60

*Glyptholaspis fimicola (Sellnick 1931)FP60 [=Nothrholaspis fimicolaFP60; incl. Gamasus carinatusCF77, Macrocheles gladiator Hull 1918FP60, Dissoloncha gladiatorFP60, M. plumiventris Hull 1925FP60, Gamasus tardus Canestrini & Fanzago 1877 non Koch 1841FP60, Glyptholaspis tardusET79]

Holocelaeno Berlese 1910K60, FH93 [incl. Euholocelaeno Berlese 1918FH93, Neoholaspis Turk 1948FH93, Trichocelaeno Berlese 1918FH93]

Holostaspella Berlese 1903K60, H98 [incl. Aethiolaspis Van Driel & Loots 1975FH93, Areolaspis Trägårdh 1952H98, Prholaspina Berlese 1918FH93; Areolaspinae]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[E57] Evans, G. O. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Acarina) with keys to families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 43: 203–259.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[FP60] Filipponi, A., & F. Pegazzano. 1960. Acari del genere Glyptholaspis nom. nov. pro Macrocheles (Macrocheles) Berl., 1918 (Mesostigmata, Macrochelidae). Redia 45: 133–171.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[K91] Koehler, H. H. 1991. The impact of aldicarb on the succession of Gamasina; a one year study. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 749–758. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K60] Krantz, G. W. 1960. A re-evaluation of the Parholaspinae Evans 1956 (Acarina: Mesostigmata: Macrochelidae). Acarologia 2 (4): 393–433.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[V25] Vitzthum, H. 1925. Fauna sumatrensis. (Beitrag no. 5). Acarinae. Supplementa Entomologica 11: 1–79.

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