Vine hawkmoth Hippotion celerio, copyright Bill & Mark Bell.

Belongs within: Sphingidae.
Contains: Rethera, Hyles, Deilephila.

The Macroglossini are a group of hawkmoths characterised by banded wings. These bands may be arranged transversely or obliquely, representing the subtribes Macroglossina and Choerocampina respectively (Pittaway 1993), though the former subtribe may be paraphyletic to the latter.

Characters (from Pittaway 1993): Imago with pattern of fore wing consisting of transverse or oblique bands; basal tone brown-grey, olive-green or brown-purple; hind wing with contrasting median area and dark submarginal cross-bands. Genitalia in male bearing uncus and gnathos with rostrate extensions directed caudad so as to resemble a crab’s claw; the apex of each heavily sclerotised and tapering to a sharp or broad point. Tegumen extended caudad into a broad tube; sacculus with apical process, accessory armature weakly developed or absent; saccus in the form of a narrow fold of vinculum. In female, lamella postvaginalis short. Larva with head small or large, rounded; horn developed or replaced by a tubercle in final instar; cuticle smooth in all instars; body with longitudinal stripes or faint oblique lateral stripes; several ocellate spots may be present along body. Pupa with proboscis usually fused with body, may be raised into a protruding ridge.

<==Macroglossini [Macroglossina]P93
    |--Sphecodina abbottiiRM01
    |--Macroglossum Scopoli 1777KP19, P93 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*M. stellatarum (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy)P93
    |    |--M. bombylansP01
    |    |--M. hirundoNS07
    |    |    |--M. h. hirundoNS07
    |    |    `--M. h. errans Walker 1856 [incl. Rhamphoschisma scottiarum Felder & Felder 1874]NS07
    |    `--M. passalus (Drury 1773) [incl. Rhamphoschisma rectifascia Felder & Felder 1874]NS07
       |    |--D. myronRM01
       |    `--D. pholusRM01
       `--Choerocampina [Chaerocampinae]RM01
            |--Pergesa Walker 1856P93
            |--Xylophanes Hübner 1819P93
            |    |--X. falcoRM01
            |    |--X. fusimacula (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Pergesa fusimacula]NS07
            |    `--X. tersaKP19
            |--Phanoxyla Rothschild & Jordan 1903P93
            |    `--P. hystrix (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Chaerocampa hystrix]NS07
            |--Cechenena Rothschild & Jordan 1903P93
            |    |--C. helops (Walker 1856) [incl. Philampelus orientalis Felder & Felder 1874]NS07
            |    `--C. lineosaAJ05
            |--Theretra Hübner 1819 (see below for synonymy)P93
            |    |--T. nessus (Drury 1773)AJ05, P93 (see below for synonymy)
            |    |--T. alecto (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy)P93
            |    |--T. boisduvalii (Bugnion 1839) (see below for synonymy)P93
            |    |--T. japonica (Boisduval 1869)P93
            |    |--T. latreilleiAJ05
            |    |--T. pinastrinaP27
            |    `--T. rhesusAJ05
            |--Hippotion Hübner 1819 [incl. Panacra Walker 1856]P93
            |    |--*H. celerio (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy)P93
            |    |--H. eson (Cramer 1779)P93
            |    |--H. lineataDS73
            |    |    |--H. l. lineataDS73
            |    |    `--H. l. livornicaDS73
            |    |--H. osiris (Dalman 1823) [=Deilephila osiris]P93
            |    |--‘Panacra’ psaltriaAJ05
            |    `--H. scrofaNC91
            |    |--P. ficus Linn. 1758H01
            |    `--P. sycesDS73
            `--Calliomma pluto Fabr. 1777H01
Macroglossini incertae sedis:
  Elibia dolichusAJ05
  Gehlenia fakataAJ05
  Rhyncholaba acteusAJ05
  Metamima australasiaeNC91, P27
  Coequosa triangularisNC91
    |--G. erotusNC91
    |--G. saccoi Lachlan & Moulds 2001Z21
    `--G. vanuatuensis Lachlan & Moulds 2003Z21
  Clarina Tutt 1903 [incl. Berutana Rothschild & Jordan 1903]P93
    `--C. kotschyi (Kollar 1850) [=Deilephila kotschyi]P93
         |--C. k. kotschyi [incl. Metopsilus mardina Staudinger in Staudinger & Rebel 1901]P93
         `--*C. k. syriaca (Lederer 1855) [=Deilephila syriaca]P93
  Acosmeryx Boisduval in Boisduval & Guenée 1875P93
    |--*A. anceus (Stoll 1781) [=Sphinx anceus]P93
    `--A. naga (Moore 1857)P93
         |--A. n. nagaP93
         `--A. n. hissarica Shchetkin 1949P93
  Proserpinus Hübner 1819 (see below for synonymy)P93
    `--P. proserpina (Pallas 1772) [=Sphinx proserpina]P93
         |--P. p. proserpina (see below for synonymy)P93
         |--P. p. gigas Oberthür 1922P93
         `--P. p. japetus (Grum-Grshimailo 1890) [=Pterogon proserpina var. japetus]P93
  Daphnis Hübner 1819 [incl. Histriosphinx Varis 1976]P93
    |--*D. nerii (Linnaeus 1758) [=Sphinx nerii; incl. Deilephila nerii bipartita Gehlen 1934]P93
    |--D. hypothous (Cramer 1780) [=Sphinx hypothous]P93
    |    |--D. h. hypothousP93
    |    `--D. h. pallescens Butler 1875P93
    |--D. placida (Walker 1856) [incl. D. angustans Felder & Felder 1874]NS07
    `--D. protrudens Felder & Felder 1874NS07
  Sphingonaepiopsis Wallengreen 1858 [incl. Pterodonta Austaut 1905]P93
    |--S. nana (Walker 1856) (see below for synonymy)P93
    |--S. gorgoniades (Hübner 1819) (see below for synonymy)P93
    |    |--S. g. gorgoniadesP93
    |    |--S. g. chloroptera Mentzer 1974 [=S. pfeifferi chloroptera]P93
    |    `--S. g. pfeifferi Zerny 1933 [=S. gorgon pfeifferi]P93
    `--S. kuldjaensis (Graeser 1892) [=Pterogon kuldjaensis]P93

*Hippotion celerio (Linnaeus 1758) [=Sphinx celerio; incl. Deilephila albolineata Montrouzier 1864, Hippotion celerio f. augustei, H. celerio f. brunnea, Phalaena inquilinus Harris 1776, H. celerio f. luecki, H. ocys Hübner 1819, H. celerio f. pallida, Elpenor phoenix Oken 1815 (nom. inv.), H. celerio f. rosea, H. celerio f. sieberti, Sphinx tisiphone Linnaeus 1758]P93

Macroglossum Scopoli 1777KP19, P93 [incl. Bombylia Hübner 1822P93, Macroglossa Boisduval 1833 non Lesson 1827P93, Psithyros Hübner 1819P93, Rhamphoschisma Wallengren 1858P93]

*Macroglossum stellatarum (Linnaeus 1758)P93 [=Sphinx stellatarumP93, Sesia stellatarumL02; incl. Sp. flavida Retzius 1783P93, Macroglossa nigra Cosmovici 1892P93, Macroglossum stellatarum f. subnubilaP93]

Proserpinus Hübner 1819 [incl. Dieneces Butler 1881, Lepisesia Grote 1865, Pogocolon Boisduval in Boisduval & Guenée 1875, Pterogon Boisduval 1828, Pteropogon Megen 1829]P93

Proserpinus proserpina proserpina (Pallas 1772) [incl. P. aenotheroides Butler 1875, P. proserpina proserpina f. brunnea, P. proserpina proserpina f. grisea, Sphinx oenotherae Denis & Schiffermüller 1775, *P. oenotherae, S. schiffermilleri Fuessly 1779, P. proserpina proserpina f. schmidti]P93

Sphingonaepiopsis gorgoniades (Hübner 1819) [=Proserpinus gorgoniades; incl. Sphinx legitima gorgon Esper 1806 (preoc.)]P93

Sphingonaepiopsis nana (Walker 1856) [=Lophura nana, Pterogon nanum Boisduval in Delegorgue 1847 (nom. inv.), Sphingonaepiopsis nanum; incl. *S. gracilipes Wallengreen 1858]P93

Theretra Hübner 1819 [incl. Florina Tutt 1903, Gnathostypsis Wallengren 1858, Hathia Moore 1882, Lilina Tutt 1903, Oreus Hübner 1819]P93

Theretra alecto (Linnaeus 1758) [=Sphinx alecto; incl. S. cretica Boisduval 1827, Theretra freyeri Kirby 1892, T. alecto intermissa Gehlen 1941, T. alecto transcaspica Bang-Haas 1927]P93

Theretra boisduvalii (Bugnion 1839) [=Sphinx boisduvalii; incl. Chaerocampa punctivenata Butler 1875, Cechenena sumatrensis Joicey & Kaye 1917]P93

Theretra nessus (Drury 1773)AJ05, P93 [=Sphinx nessusP93; incl. S. equestris Fabricius 1793P93, *Theretra equestrisP93]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AJ05] Abang, F., & A. M. Jackson. 2005. A list of hawk-moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) from Gunung Murud, Sarawak. Serangga 10 (1–2): 127–132.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[H01] Hampson, G. F. 1901. The Lepidoptera-Phalaenae of the Bahamas. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 246–261.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[NS07] Nässig, W. A., & W. Speidel. 2007. On the authorships of the Lepidoptera Atlas of the “Reise der Novara”, with a list of the taxa of Bombycoidea [s. l.] therein described (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 63–74.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[RM01] Regier, J. C., C. Mitter, T. P. Friedlander & R. S. Peigler. 2001. Re: phylogenetic relationships in Sphingidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera): initial evidence from two nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20 (2): 311–316.

[Z21] Zilli, A. 2021. Tabwecala robinsoni gen. nov., sp. nov., from Vanuatu and its systematic postion in the ‘Ophiusini-Poaphilini’ clade (Lepidoptera, Erebidae). Nota Lepidopterologica 44: 193–211.


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