Macroheterocera

Small tolype moth Tolype notialis, copyright Ken Childs.
Belongs within: Obtectomera.
Contains: Drepanidae, Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, Bombycoidea, Lasiocampinae.

The Macroheterocera are a clade of mostly medium-sized to large moths united by molecular phylogenetic analysis (Kawahara et al. 2019). Many species in this clade possess sound-receptive tympanal organs, thought differences in location and structure imply non-homology. Drepanidae and Geometroidea have tympanal organs on the abdomen, Noctuoidea have them on the metathorax, usually with counter-tympanal cavities on the base of the abdomen that may have a prominent hood, and Bombycoidea lack tympanal organs.

<==Macroheterocera KP19
|–Drepanoidea KP19
|    |–Axia [Cimeliidae] KP19
|    |    `–A. margarita KP19
|    `–+–Drepanidae KP19
|       `–Doa [Doidae] KP19
`–+–Noctuoidea KP19
`–+–Geometroidea KP19
`–+–Bombycoidea KP19
`–Lasiocampidae [Lasiocampoidea] KP19
|  i. s.: Aurivillia Tutt 1902 C92
|         Porela NS07
|           |–P. arida P27
|           `–P. notodontina (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Cosmotricha notodontina] NS07
|         Eriomorpha Fletcher 1982 (see below for synonymy) NO08
|         Euglyphis NS07
|           |–E. adusta (Walker 1855) [incl. Hydrias rubiginosa Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
|           |–E. grammophora (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hydrias grammophora] NS07
|           `–E. ochropyga (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Hydrias ochropyga] NS07
|         Paralebeda crinodes (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Opsirhina crinodes] NS07
|         Bombycopsis Felder & Felder 1874 NS07
|           `–*B. ochroleuca Felder & Felder 1874 NS07
|         Titya abstersa Felder & Felder 1874 NS07
|         Eutricha capensis (Linnaeus 1767) [incl. Pachypasa ferruginea Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
|         Streblote aculeata (Walker 1865) [incl. Pachypasa scapulosa Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
|         Bombycomorpha Felder & Felder 1874 NS07
|           `–B. bifascia (Walker 1855) [incl. *B. nupta Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
|         Trichiura crataegi (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
|         Dendrolimus JP05
|           |–D. albolineatus F92
|           |–D. kikuchii F92
|           |–D. laricis F92
|           |–D. pini (Linnaeus 1758) JP05
|           |–D. punctatus F92
|           |–D. sibiricus F92
|           |–D. spectabilis PHK96
|           `–D. tabulaeformis F92
|         Pachypasa otus (Drury 1773) L-SSY04
|         Digglesia australasiae G84
|         Perna expansa C70
|         Malacosoma G05
|           |–M. americana RD77
|           |–M. californicum G05
|           |    |–M. c. californicum G05
|           |    `–M. c. fragile G05
|           |–M. castrensis F92
|           |–M. disstria G05
|           |–M. incurvum G05
|           `–M. neustria F92
|                |–M. n. neustria F92
|                `–M. n. testacea F92
|         Macrothylacia rubi RD77
|–Chionopsychinae ONE03
|–Chondrosteginae ONE03
|–Lasiocampinae NC91
|–Poecilocampa F92 [Poecilocampinae ONE03]
|    `–P. populi F92
|–Gastropachinae NC91
|    |–Pernattia pusilla NC91
|    `–Gastropacha DS73
|         |–G. populifolia DS73
|         `–G. quercifolia DS73
|              |–G. q. quercifolia DS73
|              `–G. q. alnifolia DS73
`–Macromphaliinae KP19
|–Artace rubripalpis (Felder & Felder 1874) KP19, NS07 [=Titya rubripalpis NS07]
|–Macromphalia Felder & Felder 1874 NS07
|    |–M. ancilla (Philippi 1859) [incl. *M. chilensis Felder & Felder 1874] NS07
|    `–M. dedecora (Feisthamel 1839) NS07
`–Tolype KP19
|–T. notialis KP19
`–T. picta (Felder & Felder 1874) [=Limacodilla picta] NS07

Eriomorpha Fletcher 1982 [=Lasiomorpha Turner 1932 non Joicey & Talbot in Joicey et al. 1916] NO08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[G05] Grissell, E. E. 2005. A review of North American species of Microdontomerus Crawford (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 22–65.

[JP05] Jungmann, E., & U. Poller. 2005. Neunachweise und Wiederfunde für die Schmetterlingsfauna (Insecta; Lepidoptera) des Altenburger Landes. Mauritiana 19 (2): 317–326.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121–123.

[NO08] Nässig, W. A., & R. G. Oberprieler. 2008. An annotated catalogue of the genera of Eupterotidae (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 53–80.

[NS07] Nässig, W. A., & W. Speidel. 2007. On the authorships of the Lepidoptera Atlas of the “Reise der Novara”, with a list of the taxa of Bombycoidea [s. l.] therein described (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (1): 63–74.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[ONE03] Oberprieler, R. G., W. A. Nässig & E. D. Edwards. 2003. Ebbepterote, a new genus for the Australian ‘Eupterote’ expansa (T. P. Lucas), with a revised classification of the family Eupterotidae (Lepidoptera). Invertebrate Systematics 17: 99–110.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

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