Female Ornithonyssus bursa, copyright Marcelo de Campos Pereira.

Belongs within: Gamasina.

The Macronyssidae are a group of mites mostly ectoparasitic on reptiles, birds and mammals. The deutonymphal stage of the life cycle is inactive and non-feeding (Evans & Till 1979). The species Mitonyssoides stercoralis, associated with molossid and vespertilionid bats,  subsists on rosensteiniid mites feeding on the host’s droppings rather than being parasitic on the host itself (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Chelicerae elongate, edentate; tritosternum well developed, with laciniae; corniculi membranous, usually lobate. Palptrochanter often with raised medioventral keel. Leg coxa II with large anterior non-setigerous spur (rarely minute or absent), other coxae without spurs but occasionally with small ridges; genu and tibia I each with two anterolateral setae; genu IV typically with two ventral setae.

<==Macronyssidae [Macronyssinae]LKW09
    |--Mitonyssoides stercoralis Yunker, Lukoschus & Giesen 1990SLH18
    |--Cryptonyssus desultoriusM-M96
    |--Pellonyssus Clark & Yunker 1956H98
    |    `--P. reedi (Zumpt & Patterson 1952) [=Steatonyssus reedi; incl. S. malurus Womersley 1956, Pellonyssus malurus]H98
    |    |--M. conciliatusM-M96
    |    `--M. kochiM-M96
    |    |--R. anouraeM-M96
    |    |--R. desmodiM-M96
    |    `--R. oricolaM-M96
    |    |--C. haematophagusM-M96
    |    |--C. robustipesM-M96
    |    `--C. venezolanusM-M96
    |    |--P. crassipesM-M96
    |    |--P. euthysternumM-M96
    |    |--P. radovskyiM-M96
    |    `--P. sclerusM-M96
    |--Steatonyssus Kolenati 1858H98 [incl. Ceratonyssus Ewing 1923ET79]
    |    |  i. s.: S. antrozoiL74
    |    |         S. murinusKK54
    |    |         S. musculi (Schrank 1803) [=Acarus musculi]E57
    |    |         S. patriciae Domrow 1969H98
    |    `--S. (Steatonyssus)ET64
    |         |--*S. (S.) periblepharus Kolenati 1858ET79
    |         |--S. (S.) leptusM-M96
    |         `--S. (S.) superans Zemskaya 1951ET64
    |--Ophionyssus Mégnin 1884H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*O. natricis (Gervais 1844)ET79 [=Dermanyssus natricisH98]
    |    |--O. arnhemlandensis (Womersley 1956) [=Neoliponyssus arnhemlandensis, Sauronyssus arnhemlandensis]H98
    |    |--O. ehmanni Donrow 1985H98
    |    |--O. galloticolus Fain & Bannert 2000BKW00
    |    |--O. saurarumET79
    |    |--O. scincorum Domrow et al. 1980H98
    |    `--O. setosusBKW00
    |--Trichonyssus Domrow 1959H98
    |    |--T. australicus (Womersley 1956) [=Chiroptonyssus australicus, Ichoronyssus australicus]H98
    |    |--T. caputmedusae Domrow 1986H98
    |    |--T. lukoschusi Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985H98
    |    |--T. nixoni Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985H98
    |    |--T. solivagus Domrow 1986H98
    |    |--T. streetorum Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985H98
    |    `--T. womerleyi Domrow 1959H98
    |--Macronyssus Kolenati 1858H98 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*M. longimanus (Kolenati 1857) [=Caris longimana]ET79
    |    |--M. aristippe (Domrow 1959) [=Ichoronyssus aristippe]H98
    |    |--M. crosbyiM-M96
    |    |--M. flavusY91
    |    |--M. kolenatiiET79
    |    |--M. longisetosusM-M96
    |    |--M. leucippe (Domrow 1959) [=Ichoronyssus leucippe]H98
    |    |--‘Liponyssus’ sternalis Hirst 1921 [=*Hirstesia sternalis]E57
    |    `--M. unidensM-M96
    `--Ornithonyssus Sambon 1928H98 (see below for synonymy)
         |--*O. sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago 1877)ET79 (see below for synonymy)
         |--O. acrobates Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985H98
         |--O. bacoti (Hirst 1913) [=Leiognathus bacoti, Bdellonyssus bacoti, Liponyssus bacoti]H98
         |--O. bursa (Berlese 1888) (see below for synonymy)H98
         |--O. campester Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985H98
         |--O. dasyuri Domrow 1983H98
         |--O. latro Domrow 1963H98
         |--O. petauri Michedzinski 1980H98
         |--O. praedo Domrow 1971H98
         |--O. stigmaticus Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985H98
         `--O. taphozous Micherdzinski & Domrow 1985H98

Macronyssus Kolenati 1858H98 [incl. Allonyssus Buitendijk 1945ET79, Hirstesia Fonseca 1948ET79, Lepronyssus Kolenati 1858ET79]

Ophionyssus Mégnin 1884H98 [incl. Neoliponyssus Ewing 1929ET79, Oudemansiella Fonseca 1948 non Speg. 1881 (ICBN)DT79, Sauronyssus Sambon 1928ET79, Serpenticola Ewing 1923ET79]

Ornithonyssus Sambon 1928H98 [incl. Bdellonyssus Fonseca 1941ET79, Fonsecaonyssus Radford 1950ET79, Leiognathus Canestrini 1884 (preoc.)H98]

Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese 1888) [=Leiognathus bursa, Bdellonyssus bursa, Liponyssus bursa; incl. Le. morsitans Hirst 1915]H98

*Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago 1877)ET79 [=Dermanyssus sylviarumH98, Fonsecaonyssus sylviarumH98, Leiognathus sylviarumE57]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BKW00] Bannert, B., H. Y. Karaca & A. Wohltmann. 2000. Life cycle and parasitic interaction of the lizard-parasitizing mite Ophionyssus galloticolus (Acari: Gamasida: Macronyssidae), with remarks about the evolutionary consequences of parasitism in mites. Experimental and Applied Acarology 24: 597–613.

[E57] Evans, G. O. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Acarina) with keys to families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 43: 203–259.

[ET64] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1964. A new species of Dermanyssus and a redescription of Steatonyssus superans Zemskaya (Acari: Mesostigmata). Acarologia 6 (4): 624–631.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[KK54] Klemmer, K., & H. E. Krampitz. 1954. Zur Kenntnis der Säugetierfauna Siziliens. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35 (3-4): 121–135.

[L74] Lee, D. C. 1974. Rhodacaridae (Acari: Mesostigmata) from near Adelaide, Australia. III. Behaviour and development. Acarologia 16 (1): 21–44.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[M-M96] Morales-Malacara, J. B. 1996. Mesostigmatid (Mesostigmata) ectoparasites of bats in México. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 105–108. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[SLH18] Seeman, O. D., E. E. Lindquist & R. W. Husband. 2018. A new tribe of tarsonemid mites (Trombidiformes: Heterostigmata) parasitic on tetrigid grasshoppers (Orthoptera). Zootaxa 4418 (1): 1–54.

[WK09] Walter, D. E., & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Oviposition and life stages. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 57–63. Texas Tech University Press.

[Y91] Yastrebtsov, A. V. 1991. Features of the embryonic development of gamasid mites (Parasitiformes, Gamasida). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 115–119. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

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