Macrostomata

 African rock python Python sebae brooding eggs, from Tropicario.

Belongs within: Serpentes.
Contains: Caenophidia, Boinae.

The Macrostomata is the clade including living non-fossorial snakes. Members of the Macrostomata have a hinged supratemporal, increasing the flexibility of the skull (Longrich et al. 2012).

Synapomorphies (from Longrich et al. 2012): Orbital margin of prefrontal vertical; maxilla ascending process absent; quadrate ramus of pterygoid with groove; coronoid posteroventral process absent; pelvic elements fused; premaxilla displaced anteriorly; parietal sagittal crest reduced anteriorly; supratemporal elongate.

<==Macrostomata [Henophidia]
    |  i. s.: Pachyophis [Pachyophiidae]MH11
    |         Calabaria [Calabariidae]VH02
    |           `--C. reinhardtiiVH02
    |--+--Xenopeltis [Xenopeltidae]MH11
    |  |    `--X. unicolorVH02
    |  `--Loxocemus [Loxocemidae]VH02
    |       `--L. bicolorVH02
    `--+--+--CaenophidiaVH02
       |  `--BolyeriidaeAZ06
       |       |--Casarea dussumieriVH02
       |       |--Bolyeria multicarinataFS01
       |       `--Xenophidion [Xenophidiidae]LBG12
       |            `--X. acanthognathusLBG12
       `--+--UngaliophiinaeLBG12
          |    |--Exiliboa placataLBG12
          |    `--UngaliophisLBG12
          |         |--U. continentalisVH02
          |         `--U. panamensisLBG12
          `--BoidaeSH96
               |  i. s.: Leiopython Hubrecht 1879C18
               |           `--L. albertisii (Peters & Doria 1878) [=Liasis albertisii]C18
               |         CadurcoboaSH96
               |         DunnophisSH96
               |         BransateryxSH96
               |         CadurceryxSH96
               |         PlatyspondyliaSH96
               |--ErycinaeLBG12
               |    |  i. s.: Calamagras Cope 1873 [incl. Aphelophis Cope 1873]SH96
               |    |           |--*C. murivorus Cope 1873 (see below for synonymy)SH96
               |    |           |--C. angulatus Cope 1873 [=Ogmophis angulatus]SH96
               |    |           `--C. weigeli Holman 1972SH96
               |    |         Helagras Cope 1883SH96
               |    |           |--*H. prisciformis Cope 1883SH96
               |    |           `--H. orellanensis Holman 1983SH96
               |    |         Ogmophis Cope 1884SH96
               |    |           |--*O. oregonensis Cope 1884SH96
               |    |           `--O. compactus Lambe 1908SH96
               |    |         Geringophis Holman 1976SH96
               |    |           |--*G. depressus Holman 1976SH96
               |    |           `--G. vetus Holman 1982SH96
               |    |--+--Charina bottaeVH02
               |    |  `--Lichanura trivirgataLBG12
               |    `--+--Gongylophis colubrinusVH02
               |       `--EryxVH02
               |            |--E. colubrinusLBG12
               |            |--E. jaculusW06
               |            `--E. miliarisVH02
               `--+--BoinaeLBG12
                  `--Pythoninae [Pythonidae]LBG12
                       |  i. s.: Morelia Gray 1842S05, C18 [incl. AustraliasisC18, Simalia Gray 1849C18]
                       |           |--M. amethistina (Schneider 1801) (see below for synonymy)C18
                       |           |--M. boeleniVH02
                       |           |--M. bredli (Gow 1981) [=M. spilota bredli]C18
                       |           |--M. carinata (Smith 1981)C18
                       |           |--M. oenpelliensis (Gow 1977) [=Simalia oenpelliensis]C18
                       |           |--M. spilota (Lacépède 1804)C18
                       |           |    |--M. s. spilotaPP13
                       |           |    |--M. s. cheyneiC18
                       |           |    |--M. s. imbricataC18
                       |           |    |--M. s. mcdowelliC18
                       |           |    |--M. s. metcalfeiC18
                       |           |    `--M. s. variegataPP13
                       |           |--M. stimsoniSH90
                       |           `--M. viridis (Schlegel 1872) [=Chondropython viridis]C18
                       |         Aspidites Peters 1876LBG12, C18
                       |           |--A. melanocephalus (Krefft 1864)C18
                       |           `--A. ramsayi (Macleay 1882)C18
                       |--Python Daudin 1803VH02, RB05
                       |    |--P. europaeus Szyndlar & Rage 2003RB05
                       |    |--P. molurus Linnaeus 1758S05
                       |    |--P. natalensisHB09
                       |    |--P. regiusGWN71
                       |    |--P. reticulatus [=Broghammerus reticulatus]N10
                       |    |--P. sebae Gmelin 1789S05
                       |    `--P. spolotesB32
                       `--+--Apodora papuanaVH02
                          `--Liasis Gray 1842VH02, C18
                               |--L. fuscus Peters 1873C18
                               |--L. mackloti (Duméril & Bibron 1834)C18
                               |--L. maximus Werner 1936K08
                               |--L. olivaceus Gray 1842C18
                               |    |--L. o. olivaceusHD04
                               |    `--L. o. barroniHD04
                               `--L. savuensisVH02

*Calamagras murivorus Cope 1873 [incl. Aphelophis talpivorus Cope 1873, C. talpivorus, C. truxalis Cope 1873]SH96

Morelia amethistina (Schneider 1801) [=Simalia amethistina; incl. Liasis clarki (Barbour 1914), Morelia kinghorni (Stull 1933)]C18

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AZ06] Apesteguía, S., & H. Zaher. 2006. A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum. Nature 440: 1037–1040.

[B32] Bourne, G. 1932. Sarcosporidia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 19: 1–8.

[C18] Cogger, H. G. 2018. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia updated 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[FS01] Flannery, T. & P. Schouten. 2001. A Gap in Nature: Discovering the World’s Extinct Animals. Text Publishing: Melbourne.

[GWN71] Gorman, G. C., A. C. Wilson & M. Nakanishi. 1971. A biochemical approach towards the study of reptilian phylogeny: evolution of serum albumin and lactic dehydrogenase. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 167–185.

[HB09] Head, J. J., J. I. Bloch, A. K. Hastings, J. R. Bourque, E. A. Cadena, F. A. Herrera, P. D. Polly & C. A. Jaramillo. 2009. Giant boid snake from the Palaeocene neotropics reveals hotter past equatorial temperatures. Nature 457: 715–717.

[HD04] How, R. A., & J. Dell. 2004. Reptile assemblage of the Abydos Plain, north-eastern Pilbara, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (3): 85–95.

[K08] Korsós, Z. 2008. History of the Herpetological Collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 37–93.

[LBG12] Longrich, N. R., B.-A. S. Bhullar & J. A. Gauthier. 2012. A transitional snake from the Late Cretaceous period of North America. Nature 488: 205–208.

[MH11] Müller, J., C. A. Hipsley, J. J. Head, N. Kardjilov, A. Hilger, M. Wuttke & R. R. Reisz. 2011. Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins. Nature 473: 364–367.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[PP13] Palmer, R., D. J. Pearson, M. A. Cowan & P. Doughty. 2013. Islands and scales: a biogeographic survey of reptiles on Kimberley islands, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 183–204.

[RB05] Rage, J.-C., & S. Bailon. 2005. Amphibians and squamate reptiles from the late early Miocene (MN 4) of Béon 1 (Montréal-du-Gers, southwestern France). Geodiversitas 27 (3): 413–441.

[S05] Scanlon, J. D. 2005. Cranial morphology of the Plio-Pleistocene giant madtsoiid snake Wonambi naracoortensis. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50: 139–180.

[SH90] Storr, G. M., & G. Harold. 1990. Amphibians and reptiles of the Shark Bay area, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 279–285. Western Australian Museum.

[SH96] Sullivan, R. M., & J. A. Holman. 1996. Squamata. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 354–372. Cambridge University Press.

[VH02] Vidal, N., & S. B. Hedges. 2002. Higher-level relationships of snakes inferred from four nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Comptes Rendus Biologies 325: 977-985.

[W06] Werner, F. 1906. Die nördlichsten Reptilien und Batrachier. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 527–544. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

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