Toheroa Amphidesma ventricosum, from McLintock (1966).

Belongs within: Neoheterodontei.
Contains: Mactra, Mesodesmatidae, Lutraria, Spisula.

The Mactroidea are a group of infaunal bivalves first recorded from the Upper Cretaceous. Members of the family Mactridae have the siphons united to their tips whereas they are more or less separated in the Amphidesmatidae. The shell of Mactridae is often slightly or widely gaping. The cosmopolitan genus Spisula, however, lacks a gape in the shell; shells of this genus are trigonal to ovate and concentrically striate. Paphies is a South Pacific assemblage of ovate-elongate clams with a small, internal ligament and long, narrow, projecting resilifer.

| |--Cardilia semisulcata (Lamarck 1819) [=Isocardia semisulcata]H09
| |--Hemicyclonosta michelini Deshayes 1850SB93
| `--Cardilona bensoni Marwick 1943SB93
| i. s.: TanysiphonG88
| Rangia cuneataG88
| StandellaC96
| |--S. californicaC64
| |--S. falcataC64
| |--S. fragilisC64
| |--S. nasutaC64
| |--S. nicobarica (Gmelin 1791) [=Mactra nicobarica]H09
| `--S. planulataC64
| OxyperasC96
| Longimactra Finlay 1928P61
| `--*L. elongata (Quoy & Gaimard 1835) [=Mactra elongata]P61
| Maorimactra Finlay 1928P61
| `--*M. oridinaria (Smith 1898) [=Mactra ordinaria]P61
| Scalpomactra Finlay 1928P61
| `--*S. scalpellum (Reeve 1854) [=Mactra scalpellum]P61
| Resania Gray 1852P61
| `--*R. lanceolata Gray 1852P61
| Cyclomactra Dall 1895P61
| |--*C. tristis (Reeve 1854) [=Mactra tristis; incl. C. rudis]P61
| `--C. ovata (Gray 1843)P61
| MuliniaLS80
| |--M. angulataC64
| |--M. carinulata [incl. Mactra modesta Sloat ms]C64
| |--M. congestaLS80
| |--M. densataC64
| |--M. donaciformisH43
| |--M. lateralis (Say 1822)PMB15
| `--M. notataH79
| SarmatimactraJB12
| Nelltia elliptica (Whitfield 1891)SB93
| MactrotomaPMB15
| |--M. fragilis (Gmelin 1791)PMB15
| `--M. nasuta (Gould 1851) [=Mactra (Mactrotoma) nasuta]PP78
| AliomactraBRW98
| CymbophoraBRW98
| MulinoidesBRW98
|--Raeta Gray 1853F26 [PteropsellinaeBRW98]
| |--R. canaliculataF26
| |--R. pellicula (Reeve 1853)XZ10
| |--R. perspicuaF26
| |--R. pulchellaGAS03
| |--R. tenuiplicata Bartrum 1919F26
| `--R. undulataC64
| |--ZenatiopsisBRW98
| |--Zenatina Gill & Darragh 1963BRW98
| | `--*Z. victoriaeBRW98
| `--Zenatia Gray 1853P61
| |--*Z. zelandicaP61
| `--Z. acinaces (Quoy & Gaimard 1835)P61
`--Mactrinae [Lutrariidae, Lutrariinae]BRW98
| i. s.: Diaphoromactra versicolorBRW98
| Mactrinula dolabrata (Reeve 1854)BRW98, XZ10
| Darina declivis Carpenter 1864C64
| TresusGW02
| |--T. capax (Gould 1850)R78 [=Lutraria (Tresus) capaxC64]
| `--T. nuttalli (Conrad 1855)GW02, C64 (see below for synonymy)
| HeterocardiaBRW98
| Eastonia rugosaBRW98, PP64
`--+--Meropesta nicobarica (Gmelin 1791)TW07

Tresus nuttalli (Conrad 1855)GW02, C64 [=Schizothaerus nuttalliC64, Cryptodon nuttalliiC64; incl. Lutraria lineataC64, L. maxima Jonas 1844C64, Tresus maximusC64]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C96] Crame, J. A. 1996. Evolution of high-latitude molluscan faunas. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 119–131. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[F26] Finlay, H. J. 1926. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[GW02] Giribet, G., & W. Wheeler. 2002. On bivalve phylogeny: a high-level analysis of the Bivalvia (Mollusca) based on combined morphology and DNA sequence data. Invertebrate Biology 121 (4): 271–324.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[GAS03] Gulbin, V. V., I. S. Arzamastsev & V. M. Shulkin. 2003. Ecological monitoring of the water area of Port Vostochnyi (Wrangel Bay) in the Sea of Japan (1995–2002). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29 (5): 284–295.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. “Times” Office: Christchurch.

[H43] Hanley, S. 1843. On new species of Solen and Mesodesma. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 11: 101–102.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[LS80] Levinton, J. S., & C. M. Simon. 1980. A critique of the punctuated equilibria model and implications for the detection of speciation in the fossil record. Systematic Zoology 29 (2): 130–142.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[PMB15] Petuch, E. J., R. F. Myers & D. P. Berschauer. 2015. The Living and Fossil Busycon Whelks: Iconic Mollusks of Eastern North America. San Diego Shell Club, Inc.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[R78] Reid, R. G. B. 1978. The systematic, adaptive and physiological significance of proteolytic enzyme distribution in bivalves. Veliger 20 (3): 260–265.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

[XZ10] Xu, F., & J. Zhang. 2010. Study on the bivalve faunal composition of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 7–12. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *