Byttneria aculeata, copyright Heike Vibrans.

Belongs within: Malvales.
Contains: Rulingia, Malacothamnus, Sidalcea, Sida, Sphaeralcea, Bombacoideae, Malvoideae, Sterculioideae, Tilioideae, Dombeyoideae, Helicteroideae, Corchorus, Triumfetta, Grewia, Hermannia, Lasiopetalum.

The Malvaceae as used here in the broad sense is an assemblage of plants previously divided between the families Malvaceae, Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae and Tiliaceae; polyphyly of the latter three families has lead to their inclusion in the first. Molecular data support a basal division of the Malvaceae sensu lato between Byttneriina, including taxa previously assigned to Sterculiaceae (Byttnerioideae) and Tiliaceae (Grewioideae), and Malvadendrina, including taxa previously assigned to all four original families (Baum et al. 1998). The Byttnerioideae, including the largest portion of the historical Sterculiaceae, are characterised by perfect, actinomorphic, pentamerous flowers with stamens in multiples of five and opposite the petals. The Grewioideae bear a carpet of nectariferous hairs at the base of the petals.

The Brownlowioideae are a subgroup of the Malvadendrina characterised by a campanulate calyx with fused lobes. The Malvatheca are united by molecular data and the presence of modified staminal thecae (Baum et al. 1998). The balsa tree Ochroma pyramidale, which occupies a basal position within Malvatheca, is a large Neotropical tree known for its extremely low density wood.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Shrubs to trees (occasionally herbs); cyclopropenoid fatty acids, terpenoid-based quinones present, gums common; wood commonly fluoresces; pits not vestured; tile cells common; sieve tubes with non-dispersive protein bodies; hairs stellate/lepidote; leaves spiral or two-ranked, lamina vernation usually conduplicate(to plicate), margins entire or toothed, single vein running to the non-glandular apex, secondary venation palmate; inflorescence made up of modified cymose units [“bicolor units”]; calyx valvate; stamens (5-)many, in five groups opposite the petals, but fundamentally obdiplostemonous, basally connate, extrorse; tapetal cells 2(-4)-nucleate; gynoecium variable in orientation, style usually 5-branched apically, stigma usually dry; ovules 1-many carpel; micropyle zig-zag (endo- or exostomal), outer integument develops first, 2-4(-7) cells across, inner integument 2-7(-10) cells across, parietal tissue 3-8 cells, across, nucellar cap 2-5 cells across, hypostase present, obturator present or absent; inverse postament present; fruit a capsule (berry, schizocarp, etc.; muricate); testa multiplicative, vascularized, endotesta crystalliferous, tegmen multiplicative, endotegmic cells more or less thickened; endosperm often starchy, embryo often green; sporophytic self-incompatibility system often present.

<==Malvaceae [Bombacaceae, Eumalvales, Malvineae, Sterculiaceae, Sterculiineae]
    |    |--MalvathecaBS04
    |    |    |--+--BombacoideaeBS04
    |    |    |  `--MalvoideaeBS04
    |    |    `--+--Patinoa almirajoBS04, BAN98
    |    |       `--OchromaBS04
    |    |            |--O. lagopus Sw. 1788C81
    |    |            `--O. pyramidaleBAN98
    |    `--+--SterculioideaeBS04
    |       `--+--+--TilioideaeBS04
    |          |  `--DombeyoideaeBS04
    |          `--+--HelicteroideaeBS04
    |             `--BrownlowioideaeBAN98
    |                  |--MortoniodendronBAN98
    |                  `--+--Berrya [Berryeae]BAN98
    |                     |--ChristianaBAN98
    |                     |--JarandersoniaBAN98
    |                     `--Brownlowia [Brownlowieae]BS04
    |                          `--B. elataBAN98
    `--Byttneriina [Byttneriaceae]BAN98
         |  i. s.: Oudemansia Miq. 1854KC01
         |    |--CorchorusBAN98
         |    |--Sparmannia africanaBAN98
         |    |--TriumfettaBAN98
         |    |--GrewiaBAN98
         |    `--HeliocarpusBAN98
         |         |--H. americanusBAN98
         |         `--H. tomentosusBT87
              |--Kleinhovia hospitaBAN98, C78
              |--Theobroma [Theobromeae]BAN98
              |    |--T. bicolorBW64
              |    `--T. cacaoBAN98
                   |--*B. scabraBAN98
                   |--B. aculeataF09
                   |--B. asperaDD73
                   |--B. carthaginensisRS99
                   `--B. herbaceaP03
Malvaceae incertae sedis:
    |--M. corchorifoliaLK14
    |--M. pyramidataLK14
    `--M. umbellataLK14
    |--A. peralatumW01
    `--A. trifoliolatumB00a [=Heritiera trifoliolataH90]
    |--M. futteyporensisPP07
    |--M. incanaC16
    `--M. oblongifoliaLK14
  Dicarpidium monoicumLK14
    |--F. colorataS02
    |--F. malayanaP88
    `--F. simplex [incl. Sterculia platanifolia]LO98
    |--T. actinophyllaH97
    `--T. argyrodendronH42
  Erythropsis Lindley ex Schott & Endlicher 1832FT93
    |--T. cognataRL05
    |--T. foliosaGK00
    |--T. macrocalyxOS04
    |--T. paniculataGK00
    `--T. paucifloraGK00
    |--K. corollataH90
    |    |--K. c. var. corollataH90
    |    `--K. c. var. denticulataH90
    |--K. hermanniifoliaK90
    |--K. hilliiH90
    |--K. integrifoliaH90
    `--K. velutinaG04
         |--K. v. ssp. velutinaG04
         `--K. v. ssp. ellipticaG04
    |--C. bartramiaB00b
    |--C. echinataT-W89
    |--C. fraseriB00b
    `--C. gaudichaudiiK90
    |--H. bissilliiH90
    `--H. quadrivalvisKM08
  Ambroma augustaBB07
    |--A. esculentusM99
    |--A. ficulneusM99
    |--A. manihotH90
    `--A. moschatusLK14
  Fioria vitifoliaLK14
    |--W. americanaBTA75
    `--W. indicaLK14
    |--M. carolinianaH93
    `--M. multifidaC06
  Fugosia australisC16
    |--E. exilis [=Malvastrum exile]H93
    |--E. parryi [=Malvastrum parryi]H93
    |    |--E. p. ssp. parryiH93
    |    `--E. p. ssp. kernensis [=Malvastrum kernense]H93
    `--E. rotundifolia [=Malvastrum rotundifolium]H93
  Herissantia crispa [=Abutilon crispum]H93
    |--H. alataH93
    `--H. newberryiH93
    |--I. bakeriH93
    `--I. latibracteataH93
  Malvella leprosaH93 [=Sida leprosaH90; incl. S. leprosa var. hederaceaH93]
  Ayenia compacta [incl. A. californica]H93
  Bombacites formosus Berry 1916CBH93
  Hibiscoxylon niloticum Kräusel 1939CBH93
  Echiperiporites estelaeCBH93
  Chattawaya paliformis Manchester 1980CBH93
  Triplochitioxylon oregonensis Manchester 1979CBH93
  Gilesia binifloraH90
  Seringia arborescensH90
  Gynatrix pulchella [=Plagianthus pulchellus; incl. P. pulchellus var. tomentosus]H90
  Stegia DC. 1805KC01
  Mansonia altissimaS77
  Azanza lampasM72
  Kydia calycinaP03
    |--A. cristata [incl. A. cristata var. digitata]H93
    |--A. hastataJ87
    `--A. parviflora Cavanilles 1799C99
    |--L. densifloraKM08
    |--L. glomerata [=Plagianthus glomeratus]H90
    |--L. spicataGK00
    |--L. squamata [=Plagianthus squamatus, Selenothamnus squamatus; incl. P. incanus]H90
    `--L. viridigriseaKM08
    |--A. cannabinaH91
    |--A. hirsutaPT98
    |--A. ludwigiiD17
    `--A. officinalisPT01
    |--U. americana [incl. U. reticulata]C55
    |--U. armitianaLK14
    |    |--U. a. var. armitianaLK14
    |    `--U. a. var. spenceriLK14
    `--U. lobataLK14
    |--A. biennisPT98
    `--A. rosea [=Althaea rosea]H93
    `--Tetrasida Ulbrich 1916U16
         `--*T. polyantha Ulbrich 1916U16
  ‘Kochia’ decaptera Muell. 1875 [=K. triptera var. pentaptera Black 1924]W84
  Navaea phoenicea [=Lavatera phoenicea]BGS05
  Guichenotia ledifoliaK90
    |--P. malvifoliaU16
    `--P. micrantha Ulbrich 1916U16
  Wissadula sect. EuwissadulaU16
    |--W. contractaU16
    |--W. densifloraU16
    `--W. fuscorosea Ulbrich 1916U16
    |--P. panniculatum [=Wissadula panniculata]U16
    `--P. (subg. Abutilastrum) weberbaueri Ulbrich 1916U16
    |--N. flabellataU16
    |--N. glacialis Ulbrich 1916U16
    |--N. obcuneataU16
    `--N. porphyrantha Ulbrich 1916U16
  Tarasa rahmeriU16

*Type species of generic name indicated


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