Mantodea

Female Nesoxypilus albomaculatus, copyright Deane Lewis.

Belongs within: Dictyoptera.
Contains: Mantoidea.

The Mantodea, mantids, are a lineage of Dictyoptera (cockroaches and relatives) that have become adapted for a predatory lifestyle. They are distinguished from other dictyopterans by the absence of a shield-like pronotum. Except for the basal Cretaceous Baissomantis, mantids possess raptorial forelegs with a large apical spine on the tibia, and an oblique veinlike ‘pseudovein’ near the basal forks of the M and CuA veins. The genera Jersimantis, Chaeteessites and Burmantis lack the thick, stiff spines found on the fore femora in more derived taxa (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Among modern mantids, members of the Amorphoscelidae differ from other families in lacking spines on the ventral external margin of the fore tibia. Within the subfamily Paraoxypilinae, males are fully winged whereas the females are brachypterous or wingless (Rentz 1996).

<==Mantodea [Manteodea, Mantida]
    |--Baissomantis Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993GE05, G03 [Baissomantidae]
    |    |--*B. picta Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
    |    `--B. maculata Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
    `--+--Jersimantis Grimaldi 1997GE05, G03
       |    |--*J. luzzii Grimaldi 1997G03
       |    `--J. burmiticus Grimaldi 2003G03
       `--+--Chaeteessites Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
          |    |--*C. minutissimus Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
          |    `--C. minimus Gratchev & Zherikhin 1993V02
          |--Burmantis Grimaldi 2003G03
          |    |--*B. asiatica Grimaldi 2003G03
          |    `--B. lebanensis Grimaldi 2003G03
          `--+--Electromantis Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993GE05, G03
             |    `--*E. sukatshevae Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
             |--+--Santanmantis Grimaldi 2003GE05, V10 [Santanmantidae]
             |  |    `--*S. axelrodi Grimaldi 2003G03
             |  `--Cretomantis Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993 [Cretomantidae]G03
             |       `--*C. larvalis Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
             `--NeomantodeaG03
                  |--Ambermantis Grimaldi 2003GE05, G03 [Ambermantidae]
                  |    `--*A. wozniaki Grimaldi 2003G03
                  `--EumantodeaG03
                       |--+--Chaeteessidae [Chaeteessiidae]V02
                       |  |    |--Chaeteessa longialataGE05, Z02
                       |  |    |--Vitimiphotina Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993Z02, G03
                       |  |    |    `--*V. corrupta Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
                       |  |    |--Arverineura insignisGE05, G03
                       |  |    |--Lithophotina floccosaGE05, G03
                       |  |    `--Cretophotina Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993V02, G03
                       |  |         |--*C. tristriata Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
                       |  |         |--C. mongolica Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
                       |  |         |--C. selenginesis Vršanský 2002V02
                       |  |         `--C. serotina Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
                       |  `--Juramantis Vršanský 2002 [Juramantidae]V02
                       |       `--*J. initialis Vršanský 2002V02
                       `--+--Metallyticus [Metallyticidae]GE05
                          |    `--M. splendensBB16
                          |--Mantoida [Mantoididae]GE05
                          |    |--M. burmeisteriR15
                          |    `--M. tenuisR15
                          `--+--+--EremiaphilidaeZ02
                             |  |    |--EremiaphilaG03
                             |  |    `--HeteronutarsusG03
                             |  |--Helvia [Acanthopidae]Z02
                             |  `--MantoideaGE05
                             `--AmorphoscelidaeG03
                                  |--Amorphoscelis Stal 1877V02 [AmorphoscelinaeB91]
                                  `--ParaoxypilinaeB91
                                       |--Gyromantis kraussiiB91
                                       |--Phthersigena minorMC13
                                       |--Cliomantis cornutaB91
                                       |--ParaoxypilusB91
                                       |    |--P. kimberleyensisMC13
                                       |    `--P. tasmaniensisB91
                                       `--NesoxypilusB91
                                            |--N. albomaculatusR96
                                            `--N. pseudomyrmexR96
Mantodea incertae sedis:
  ProhierodulaWBM03
  Eobrunneria tesselataZ02
  Leptocola stanleyanaGE05
  RegiatidaeGR02
    |--PtotachaetaGR02
    `--Regiata scutraGE05
  Galinthias amoenaI92
  Sphodromantis lineolaK91
    |--S. l. lineolaK91
    `--S. l. pinguisK91
  Amorphoscelites Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
    `--*A. sharovi Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
  Kazakhophotina Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
    `--*K. corrupta Gratshev & Zherikhin 1993G03
  Archaeophlebia enigmaticaG03
  Megaphotina sichotensisG03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BB16] Bai, M., R. G. Beutel, K.-D. Klass, W. Zhang, X. Yang & B. Wipfler. 2016. Alienoptera—a new insect order in the roach-mantodean twilight zone. Gondwana Research 39: 317–326.

[B91] Balderson, J. 1991. Mantodea (praying mantids). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 348–356. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[G03] Grimaldi, D. 2003. A revision of Cretaceous mantises and their relationships, including new taxa (Insecta: Dictyoptera: Mantodea). American Museum Novitates 3412: 1–47.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K91] Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 684–695. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[V02] Vršanský, P. 2002. Origin and the early evolution of mantises. AMBA Projekty 6 (1): 1–16.

[V10] Vršanský, P. 2010. Cockroach as the earliest eusocial animal. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 84 (4): 793–808.

[WBM03] Whiting, M. F., S. Bradler & T. Maxwell. 2003. Loss and recovery of wings in stick insects. Nature 421: 264–267.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Order Mantida Latreille, 1802. The mantises (=Mantodea Burmeister, 1838). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 273–276. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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