Pygmy ground mantis Bolbe sp., possibly B. nigra, copyright Steve Kerr.

Belongs within: Mantodea.
Contains: Mantinae.

The Mantoidea are a major clade of mantids characterised by a long pronotum and the presence of a unique hearing organ (the ‘cyclopean’ ear) on the metathorax between the sternites and just anterior to the hind coxae (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Members of the family Mantidae may be recognised by having the ventroexternal spines on the fore tibia erect and widely spaced. In the Hymenopodidae, these spines are closely spaced and reclinate (Balderson 1991).

    |  i. s.: Prochaeradodis enigmaticusG03
    |    |--ChrysomantisTW05
    |    |--Hymenopus coronatusGE05
    |    |--OxypilusRD77
    |    `--Acromantis [Acromantinae]TW05
    |         `--A. australisR96
    |    |--Gongylus gongyloidesTW05
    |    |--Idolum de Saussure 1870L89
    |    |    `--*I. diabolicum de Saussure 1870L89
    |    `--EmpusaR13
    |         |--E. egenaR13
    |         |--E. gongylodesG20
    |         |--E. pauperataR13
    |         `--E. pectinicornisR26
    `--Mantidae [Manteidae]GE05
         |  i. s.: Tarachodes [Tarachodidae]Z02
         |         Myomantis caffraH04
         |         Prochaerododis enigmaticusGE05
         |         Iris [Irides]AN-A04
         |           `--L. oratoriaAN-A04
         |         AmelesAN-A04
         |           |--A. abjectaAN-A04
         |           |--A. decolorAN-A04
         |           `--A. spallanzaniaAN-A04
         |         PyrgomantisRD77
         |         MiomantisRD77
         |         Stagmomantis carolinaRD77, BB16
         |         Phantoma Risso 1826R26
         |           `--*P. variabilis Risso 1826R26
         |--Choeradodis [Choeradodinae]Z02
         |--Liturgusinae [Liturgusidae]Z02
         |--Vatinae [Vatidae]Z02
         |    |--Stagmatoptera hyalopteraZ02, R15
         |    `--ParastagmatopteraZ02
         |         |--P. flavoguttata (Serville 1839) [=Mantis flavoguttata]R18
         |         `--P. unipunctataR15
         |    |--Miopteryx argentinaR15
         |    `--Musonia [=Promusonia Giglio-Tos 1916; incl. Mionyx]R18
         |         |--*M. surinama [=*Promusonia surinama]R18
         |         |--M. lineativentris [=*Mionyx lineativentris]R18
         |         `--M. major Saussure & Zehntner 1894R18
         |    |--Orthoderina stramineaR96
         |    `--OrthoderaH04
         |         |--O. gunniiW70
         |         |--O. ministralisR96
         |         `--O. novaezealandiaeH04
         |    |--Coptopteryx [Coptopteriges, Coptopterygini]SB07
         |    |    |--C. argentinaR15
         |    |    |--C. crenaticollisBM76
         |    |    `--C. gayiBM76
         |    `--Photinaini [Orthoderellae]SB07
         |         |--Orthoderella ornataR15
         |         `--Photina Burmeister 1838SB07
         |              `--*P. vitrea (Burmeister 1838) (see below for synonymy)SB07
              |--Neomantis australisR96
              |--Kongobatha diademataR96
              |--Ima fuscaR96
                   |--B. maiaB91
                   |--B. nigraR96
                   `--B. pallidaK70

*Photina vitrea (Burmeister 1838) [=Mantis (*Photina) vitrea (nom. cons.) non Stoll 1813, Cardioptera vitrea, Metriomantis vitrea; incl. Photina amplipennis Stål 1877]SB07

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AN-A04] Askew, R. R., & J. L. Nieves-Aldrey. 2004. Further observations on Eupelminae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae) in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands, including descriptions of new species. Graellsia 60 (1): 27–39.

[BB16] Bai, M., R. G. Beutel, K.-D. Klass, W. Zhang, X. Yang & B. Wipfler. 2016. Alienoptera—a new insect order in the roach-mantodean twilight zone. Gondwana Research 39: 317–326.

[B91] Balderson, J. 1991. Mantodea (praying mantids). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 348–356. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[G03] Grimaldi, D. 2003. A revision of Cretaceous mantises and their relationships, including new taxa (Insecta: Dictyoptera: Mantodea). American Museum Novitates 3412: 1–47.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H04] Harris, A. C. 2004. Range extensions of Ancistrocerus gazella (Hymenoptera: Eumenidae) and Myomantis caffra (Mantodea: Mantidae). Weta 27: 31–32.

[K70] Key, K. H. L. 1970. Mantodea (praying mantids). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 294–301. Melbourne University Press.

[L89] Lucas, H. 1889. Notes suivantes. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: lxxxii–lxxxiii.

[R15] Rehn, J. A. G. 1915. A further contribution to the knowledge of the Orthoptera of Argentina. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 67 (2): 270–292.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[SB07] Svenson, G. J., & M. A. Branham. 2007. Photinini LeConte, 1881 (Insecta, Coleoptera) and Photininae Giglio-Tos, 1915 (Insecta, Mantodea): proposed resolution of homonymy between family-group names. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 64 (4): 243–251.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[W70] White, M. J. D. 1970. Cytogenetics. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 72–82. Melbourne University Press.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Order Mantida Latreille, 1802. The mantises (=Mantodea Burmeister, 1838). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 273–276. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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