Mariametracea

Heterometra savignyi, copyright Igor Kot.

Belongs within: Solanocrinitacea.

The Mariametracea are a group of feather stars with no aboral star and largely unornamented cirrus sockets.

Characters (from Weinberg Rasmussen 1978): Centrodorsal low hemispherical to discoidal with cirrus-free, flattened to concave dorsal side, which is smooth or tuberculate, seldom rugose or with traces of obliterated cirrus sockets. No dorsal star. Cirrus sockets without distinct ornament or with slightly elevated rim around axial canal closely placed in one to three, seldom four, irregular marginal circles. Dorsal side of cirrals rounded or carinate, with or without dorsal spines. Ventral side of centrodorsal with interradial ridges. Centrodorsal cavity narrow to moderate, less than 0.3 of centrodorsal diameter. Basal rosette but usually no rod-shaped basals. Radials with a low, free surface, commonly concealed in midradial area, very seldom moderate to high. Articular face of radials often rather flat, moderately sloping to almost vertical, and often separated by narrow interradial margins. Interarticular ligament fossae large, high and broad. Ventral muscular fossae generally small, commonly forming a narrow crescentic band along ventral edge and midradial furrow. Wide midradial furrow usually present with or without median ridge, except in Cyllometra which has only a narrow midradial ridge. Radial cavity moderate to large, in juvenile specimens often very large, with spongy calcareous filling. Arms usually dividing at primibrach 2 and further divided with intervals of two or four, often different in inner and outer branches; Eudiocrinus with five arms undivided with first pinnule on brachials 2 and second pinnule on brachials 4, but no pinnule on brachials 3. Synarthrial, flat articulations at brachials 1–2 except for primibrachs 1–2 of Zygometridae and Eudiocrinidae. Syzygial articulations at brachials 3–4 and with variable, often large intervals in distal branches, in Zygometridae and Eudiocrinidae syzygy also at primibrachs 1–2. Oral pinnules may be more or less carinate. One or more proximal pinnules, generally the first inner pinnule (Pa), absent in Colobometridae. Genital and distal pinnules not carinate except for trace of carination in the most proximal pinnulars. Ambulacral covering plates inconspicuous or absent. Mouth central.

Mariametracea [Mariametrida]
|--Eudiocrinus Carpenter 1882 (see below for synonymy)WR78
| |--*E. indivisus (Semper 1868) [=Ophiocrinus indivisus; incl. E. granulatus Bell 1894]WR78
| |--E. ornatusWR78
| `--E. pinnatusWR78
|--ZygometridaeWR78
| |--Catoptometra Clark 1908WR78
| | `--*C. hartlaubi (Clark 1907) [=Antedon hartlaubi]WR78
| `--Zygometra Clark 1907 [incl. Hyponome Lovén 1869]WR78
| |--*Z. microdiscus (Bell 1884)WR78 [=Antedon microdiscusWR78; incl. *Hyponome sarsi Lovén 1869WR78, C50, WR78]
| |--Z. andromeda Clark 1912MG-H11
| |--Z. comata Clark 1911SM15
| |--Z. elegans (Bell 1882)MG-H11
| `--Z. punctata Clark 1912SM15
|--Mariametridae [Mariametrinae, Stephanometridae, Stephanometrinae]WR78
| |--Dichrometra Clark 1909WR78
| | `--*D. flagellata (Müller 1841) [=Alecto flagellata; incl. A. elongata Müller 1841]WR78
| |--Pelometra Clark 1941WR78
| | `--*P. ambonensis Clark 1941WR78
| |--Mariametra Clark 1909WR78
| | |--*M. subcarinata (Clark 1908) [=Himerometra subcarinata]WR78
| | `--M. vicaria (Bell 1894)MG-H11
| |--Liparometra Clark 1913WR78
| | |--*L. grandis (Clark 1908) [=Himerometra grandis]WR78
| | `--L. articulata (Müller 1849)LR06
| |--Lamprometra Clark 1913WR78
| | |--*L. imparipinna (Carpenter 1882) [=Antedon imparipinna]WR78
| | |--L. klunzingeriBL78
| | `--L. palmata (Müller 1841)SM15
| |--Oxymetra Clark 1909 [incl. Selenemetra Clark 1911]WR78
| | |--*O. erinacea (Hartlaub 1890) [=Antedon erinacea]WR78
| | `--‘Antedon’ finschii Hartlaub 1890 [=*Selenemetra finschii]WR78
| `--Stephanometra Clark 1909WR78
| |--‘Antedon’ protectus Lütken in Carpenter 1879 (see below for synonymy)WR78
| |--S. indica (Smith 1876)SM15
| |--S. oxyacantha (Hartlaub 1890)LR06
| `--S. spinipinna (Hartlaub 1890)LR06
|--HimerometridaeWR78
| |--Discometra Gislén 1924WR78
| | `--*D. rhodanica (Fontannes 1877) [=Eugeniacrinus rhodanicus; incl. Antedon meneghinianus Fontannes 1880]WR78
| |--Craspedometra Clark 1909WR78
| | `--*C. acuticirra (Carpenter 1882) (see below for synonymy)WR78
| |--Homalometra Clark 1918WR78
| | `--*H. denticulata (Carpenter 1888) [=Antedon denticulata]WR78
| |--Amphimetra Clark 1909WR78
| | |--A. tessellata (Müller 1841)SM15 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--A. discoideaC50
| | `--A. ensiferWR78
| |--Himerometra Clark 1907WR78
| | |--H. robustipinna (Carpenter 1881)LR06 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--H. bassleri Gislén 1934SG93
| | |--H. grippaeWR78
| | |--H. magnipinna (Clark 1908)LR06
| | `--H. martensiWR78
| `--Heterometra Clark 1909 [incl. Alecto Leach 1815 (n. d.)]WR78
| |--*H. quinquedublicava (Carpenter 1888) (see below for synonymy)WR78
| |--H. crenulata (Carpenter 1882)MG-H11
| |--*Alecto’ horrida Leach 1815 (n. d.)WR78
| |--H. reynaudii (Müller 1846) [=Comatula (Alecto) reynaudi]WR78
| |--H. sarae Clark 1941SM15
| `--H. savignyiL78
`--Colobometridae [Pontiometridae]WR78
|--Alisometra Clark 1947WR78
|--Pontiometra Clark 1907WR78
| `--*P. andersoni (Carpenter 1889) [=Antedon andersoni; incl. P. insperatus Clark 1909]WR78
|--Cotylometra Clark 1916WR78
| `--*C. gracilicirra (Clark 1908) [=Oligometra gracilicirra]WR78
|--Cyllometra Clark 1907WR78
| `--*C. manca (Carpenter 1888) [=Antedon manca]WR78
|--Colobometra Clark 1909WR78
| `--*C. perspinosa (Carpenter 1881) [=Antedon perspinosa]WR78
|--Austrometra Clark 1916WR78
| `--*A. thetidis (Clark 1909) [=Oligometra thetidis]WR78
|--Basilometra Clark 1936 [incl. Rhadinometra Gislén 1936]WR78
| `--*B. boschmai Clark 1936 [incl. *Rhadinometra dawydovi Gislén 1936]WR78
|--Cenometra Clark 1909WR78
| |--C. bella (Hartlaub 1890) (see below for synonymy)WR78
| |--C. emendatrix (Bell 1892)SM15
| `--C. herdmani Clark 1909SM15
|--Clarkometra Gislén 1922WR78
| `--*C. elegans Gislén 1922WR78
|--Embryometra Gislén 1938WR78
| `--*E. mortenseni Gislén 1938WR78
|--Epimetra Clark 1911WR78
| `--*E. nympha Clark 1911WR78
|--Gislenometra Clark 1947WR78
| `--*G. perplexa Clark 1947WR78
|--Oligometrides Clark 1913WR78
| `--*O. adeonae (Lamarck 1816) [=Comatula adeonae; incl. Antedon bidens Bell 1884]WR78
|--Petasometra Clark 1912WR78
| |--*P. clarae (Hartlaub 1890) [=Antedon clarae]WR78
| `--P. helianthoides Clark 1912SM15
|--Iconometra Clark 1929WR78
| |--*I. speciosa Clark 1929WR78
| `--I. anisa (Clark 1915)MG-H11
|--Oligometra Clark 1908WR78
| |--*O. serripinna (Carpenter 1881) (see below for synonymy)WR78
| `--O. carpenteri (Bell 1884)MG-H11
|--Analcidometra Clark 1911WR78
| |--*A. caribbea (Clark 1908) [=Oligometra caribbea]WR78
| `--A. armataMMR78
`--Decametra Clark 1911 [incl. Prometra Clark 1912]WR78
|--*D. moebius Clark 1911WR78
|--‘Colobometra’ chadwicki Clark 1911 [=*Prometra chadwicki]WR78
|--D. laevipinna (Clark 1912)SM15
`--D. parva (Clark 1912)SM15

Amphimetra tessellata (Müller 1841)SM15 [=Alecto tesselataWR78; incl. Comatula jacquinoli Müller 1846WR78, C. (Alecto) milberti Müller 1846WR78, *Amphimetra milbertiWR78]

‘Antedon’ protectus Lütken in Carpenter 1879 [incl. Himerometra acuta Clark 1908, A. flavomaculata Bell 1894, H. heliaster Clark 1908, A. marginata Carpenter 1888, A. monacantha Hartlaub 1890, *Stephanometra monacantha]WR78

Cenometra bella (Hartlaub 1890) [=Antedon bella; incl. A. abotti Clark 1907, Cenometra delicata Clark 1909, C. insueta Clark 1909, Himerometra unicornis Clark 1908, *C. unicornis]WR78

*Craspedometra acuticirra (Carpenter 1882) [=Antedon acuticirra; incl. A. australis Carpenter 1882, A. bipartipinna Carpenter 1882, A. ludovici Carpenter 1882]WR78

Eudiocrinus Carpenter 1882 [=Ophiocrinus Semper 1868 nec Salter 1856 nec Charlesworth 1865; Eudiocrinidae, Eudiocrininae]WR78

*Heterometra quinquedublicava (Carpenter 1888) [=Antedon quinquedublicava; incl. A. anceps Carpenter 1888, A. clemens Carpenter 1888]WR78

Himerometra robustipinna (Carpenter 1881)LR06 [=Actinometra robustipinnaWR78; incl. Antedon crassipinna Hartlaub 1890WR78, *Himerometra crassipinnaWR78]

*Oligometra serripinna (Carpenter 1881) [=Antedon serripinna; incl. O. concinna Clark 1912, O. pulchella Clark 1908]WR78

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BL78] Breimer, A., & N. G. Lane. 1978. Ecology and paleoecology. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 1 pp. T316–T347. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[C50] Clark, A. H. 1950. A monograph of the existing crinoids. Vol. 1. The comatulids. Part 4c. Superfamily Tropiometrida (the families Thalassometridae and Charitometridae). Bulletin of the United States National Museum 82 vol. 1 (4c): 1–383.

[LR06] Lanterbecq, D., G. W. Rouse, M. C. Milinkovitch & I. Eeckhaut. 2006. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate multiple independent emergences of parasitism in Myzostomida (Protostomia). Systematic Biology 55 (2): 208–227.

[MMR78] Macurda, D. B., Jr., D. L. Meyer & M. Roux. 1978. The crinoid stereom. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 1 pp. T217–T228. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[SM15] Sampey, A., & L. M. Marsh. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: echinoderms. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 207–246.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WR78] Wienberg Rasmussen, H. 1978. Articulata. In: Moore, R. C., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea vol. 3 pp. T813–T927. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

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