Paragia vespiformis, from Carpenter (1996).

Belongs within: Vespidae.

The Masarinae, pollen wasps, are a group of wasps found primarily on the southern continents that provision their nests with pollen and nectar. They can be distinguished from other vespids by the lack of a trochantellus on the mid femur. Within the masarines, members of the tribe Gayellini have a pointed tegula and lack a pretegular carina (Carpenter 1996).

<==Masarinae [Masarides]
    |--Gayellini [Gayellinae]C96
         |--Ceramius Latreille 1810C96, S86
         |    |--C. beyeriC96
         |    |--C. cafferOK99
         |    |--C. capicolaR13
         |    |--C. hispanicusRL09
         |    |--C. karooensisR13
         |    |--C. lichtensteinii [=Eumenes (Ceramius) lichtensteinii]G20
         |    |    |--C. l. lichtensteiniiGS61
         |    |    `--C. l. macrocephalus Saussure 1855GS61
         |    `--C. metanotalisOK99
         `--+--MasarisL02 [MasarinaC96]
            |    |--M. aegyptiacusPK17
            |    |--M. carliC96
            |    `--M. vespiformisL02
            `--Paragiina [Paragiini]C96
                 |--Ceramiopsis Zavattari 1910S86
                 |--Metaparagia Meade-Waldo 1911 (see below for synonymy)C96
                 |    |--+--M. maculata (Meade-Waldo 1910)C96, C85 [=Paragia maculataC85, *Rolandia maculataC85]
                 |    |  `--+--*M. pictifrons (Smith 1857)S86, C96, S86 [=Paragia pictifronsS86]
                 |    |     `--M. doddi Meade-Waldo 1911C96, S86 [=Paragia doddiC85]
                 |    `--+--+--M. confluens (Snelling 1986)C96, S86 [=Paragia confluensC96, Riekia confluensC96]
                 |       |  `--M. nocatunga (Richards 1962)C96, C85 [=*Riekia nocatungaC85]
                 |       `--+--M. hua (Snelling 1986)C96, S86 [=*Ammoparagia huaS86]
                 |          `--+--M. borreriae (Snelling 1986)C96, S86 [=Rolandia borreriaeS86]
                 |             `--+--M. angulata (Richards 1968)C96, S86 [=Riekia angulataS86, Rolandia angulataS86]
                 |                `--M. houstoni (Snelling 1986)C96, S86 [=Rolandia houstoniS86]
                 `--Paragia Shuckard 1837 (see below for synonymy)C96
                      |--*P. decipiens Shuckard 1837S86
                      |    |--P. d. decipiensC85
                      |    `--P. d. aliciae Richards 1962C85
                      |--P. australis Saussure 1853 [=P. (Paragiella) australis]C85
                      |    |--P. a. australisC85
                      |    `--P. a. borealis Richards 1962C85
                      |--P. bicolor Saussure 1853 [=P. (Paragiella) bicolor]C85
                      |--P. calida Smith 1865 [=P. (Paragiella) calida]C85
                      |--P. deceptrix Smith 1862 [=P. deceptor, [=P. (Paragiella) deceptrix]C85
                      |--P. generosa Richards 1962 [=P. (Paragiella) generosa]C85
                      |--P. hirsuta Meade-Waldo 1911 [=P. (Paragiella) hirsuta]C85
                      |--P. magdalena Turner 1908 [=P. (Paragiella) magdalena]C85
                      |--P. mimetica Richards 1968 [=P. (Paragiella) mimetica]C85
                      |--P. monocesta Snelling 1986S86
                      |--P. morosa Smith 1868 [=P. (Paragiella) morosa]C85
                      |--P. nasuta Smith 1868 [=P. (Paragiella) nasuta]C85
                      |--P. odyneroides Smith 1850 (see below for synonymy)C85
                      |--P. oligomera Snelling 1986S86
                      |--P. perkinsi Meade-Waldo 1911 [=P. (Paragiella) perkinsi]C85
                      |--P. propodealis Richards 1968 [=P. (Paragiella) propodealis]C85
                      |--P. schulthessi Turner 1936C85
                      |--P. smithii Saussure 1854C85
                      |--P. sobrina Smith 1869 [=P. (Paragiella) sobrina; incl. P. excellens Smith 1869]C85
                      |--P. tricolor Smith 1850 [=P. saussurii Smith 1857]C85
                      |--P. venusta Smith 1865 [=P. (Paragiella) venusta; incl. P. concinna Smith 1868]C85
                      |--P. vespiformis Smith 1865 [=P. (*Cygnaea) vespiformis]S86
                      `--P. walkeri Meade-Waldo 1910 [=P. (Paragiella) walkeri]C85
Masarinae incertae sedis:
    |--T. americanaC96
    |--T. howardiCC85
    `--T. rhachiphoraHH07
    |--P. phaceliaeHH07
    `--P. vespoidesJB13
  Celonites Latreille 1802L02
    |--*C. apiformis [=Masaris apiformis]L02
    |--C. cypriusC96
    `--C. varipennisC96
  Masarina Richards 1962G05
    |--M. aptosimi Gess 2005G05
    |--M. ceresG05
    |--M. familiarisG05
    |--M. hermanniae Gess 2005G05
    |--M. hyalinipennisG05
    |--M. mixtaG05
    |--M. mixtoidesG05
    |--M. namaquaG05
    |--M. parvulaG05
    |--M. peliostomiG05
    |--M. roberti Gess 2005G05
    |--M. struckiG05
    `--M. tylecodoniG05

Metaparagia Meade-Waldo 1911 [incl. Ammoparagia Snelling 1986, Riekia Richards 1962, Rolandia Richards 1962]C96

Paragia Shuckard 1837 [incl. Alpha Dalla Tore 1904 non Saussure 1854, Beta Dalla Torre 1904 non Saussure 1854, Cygnaea Richards 1962, Paragiella Richards 1962]C96

Paragia odyneroides Smith 1850 [=P. (*Paragiella) odyneroides; incl. P. bidens Saussure 1855, P. praedator Saussure 1855]C85

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C85] Cardale, J. C. 1985. Vespoidea and Sphecoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 150–303. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[C96] Carpenter, J. M. 1996. Generic classification of the Australian pollen wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Masarinae. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 69 (4 suppl.): 384–400.

[CC85] Carpenter, J. M., & J. M. Cumming. 1985. A character analysis of the North American potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Eumeninae). Journal of Natural History 19 (5): 877–916.

[G05] Gess, F. W. 2005. Three new species of Masarina Richards, 1962 from southern Africa with a key to all species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Masarinae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 7–14.

[GS61] Giordani Soika, A. 1961. Hymenoptera (Aculeata): Vespidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 440–451. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HH07] Hines, H. M., J. H. Hunt, T. K. O’Connor, J. J. Gillespie & S. A. Cameron. 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104 (9): 3295–3299.

[JB13] Johnson, B. R., M. L. Borowiec, J. C. Chiu, E. K. Lee, J. Atallah & P. S. Ward. 2013. Phylogenomics resolves evolutionary relationships among ants, bees, and wasps. Current Biology 23: 2058–2062.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[OK99] OConnor, B. M., & J. S. H. Klompen. 1999. Phylogenetic perspectives on mite-insect associations: the evolution of acarinaria. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 63–71. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[RL09] Ren, D., C. C. Labandeira, J. A. Santiago-Blay, A. Rasnitsyn, C. Shih, A. Bashkuev, M. A. V. Logan, C. L. Hotton & D. Dilcher. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326: 840–847.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[S86] Snelling, R. R. 1986. The taxonomy and nomenclature of some Australian paragiine wasps (Hymenoptera: Masaridae). Contributions in Science 378: 1–19.

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