Megachilini

 Megachile centuncularis, copyright Sandy Spitalnik.

Belongs within: Osmiini.
Contains: Coelioxys (Coelioxys), Megachile (Amegachile), Megachile (Austrochile), Megachile (Callomegachile), Megachile (Chelostomoda), Megachile (Eutricharaea), Megachile (Hackeriapis).

The Megachilini, leafcutter bees and resin bees, are a group of often large bees that commonly construct nests in holes using rolled pieces of leaf, or from collected resin or mud. The greater number are included in the genus Megachile though some authors have restricted this genus to the leafcutter bees with the resin bees classified as a separate genus Chalicodoma. Species of the genus Coelioxys are cleptoparasitic, most commonly on species of Megachile.

Characters (from Michener 1965): Stigma distinct, distal to middle of forewing; marginal cell closed at apex; jugal lobe of hind wing less than half as long as vannal; corbicula absent; outer surfaces of tibiae without large bare spicules, or spicules on anterior pair only; arolia absent.

<==Megachilini [Chalicodomopsini, Coelioxyinae]
    |--Coelioxys Latreille 1809M65
    |    |  i. s.: C. acuminataMS01
    |    |         C. afraL49
    |    |         C. alternata Say 1837CSD10
    |    |         C. amboinensis Dusmet y Alonso 1915M65
    |    |         C. argenteaL49
    |    |         C. coloradensisR35
    |    |         C. conoideaR35
    |    |         C. grindeliaeR35
    |    |         C. octodentataR35
    |    |         C. quadridentataR35
    |    |         C. rufescensR13
    |    |         C. rufitarsusR35
    |    |         C. sayiC01
    |    |--C. (Coelioxys)M65
    |    |--C. (Liothyrapis Cockerell 1911)M65
    |    |    |--C. (L.) decipiens Spinola 1836 [incl. C. apicata Smith 1854, *Liothyrapis apicata]M65
    |    |    `--C. (L.) albiceps Friese 1909M65
    |    `--C. (Torridapis) weinlandi Schulz 1904H18, M65 [=C. (Liothyrapis) weinlandiM65]
    `--Megachile Latreille 1802E01 (see below for synonymy)
         |  i. s.: M. acutaR35
         |         M. acutiventris Friese 1903M65
         |         M. adelaidae Cockerell 1910M65
         |         M. albocinctaR35
         |         M. amboinensis Friese 1909 [incl. M. rufa Friese 1903 non Apis rufa Linnaeus 1758]M65
         |         M. analisR13
         |         M. angelarum Cockerell 1902CSD10
         |         M. arundinaceaK18
         |         M. aurantiaca Friese 1905M65
         |         M. bicornis (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Apis bicornisL02]
         |         M. bombycinaMS01
         |         M. brevisR35
         |         M. buyssoniR13
         |         M. caerulescensR26
         |         M. campanulaeR35
         |         M. castaneipes Friese 1908M65
         |         M. circumcinctaR35
         |         M. cleomisR35
         |         M. disjunctaR35
         |         M. ericetorum Lepeletier 1841CSD10
         |         M. exilisBD17
         |         M. fasciculata [incl. M. anthracina, M. hornei]R35
         |         M. fidelisOK99
         |         M. flavipesKK96
         |         M. florentina [=Apis florentina]L02
         |         M. florisomnisR26
         |         M. fortisR35
         |           |--M. f. fortisR35
         |           `--M. f. vestaliR35
         |         M. fraternaB03
         |         M. fusca Friese 1903M65
         |         M. gemulaR35
         |         M. genalisR13
         |         M. infragilisR35
         |         M. inquirendaR13
         |         M. interruptaR26
         |         M. lagopodaMS01 [=Apis lagopodaL02]
         |         M. lanataR35
         |         M. latimanusR35
         |         M. lefebvraeiL49
         |         M. lignisecaR13
         |         M. maculata [=Apis maculata]L02
         |         M. maritimaMS01
         |         M. melanopygaMS01
         |         M. mertoni Friese 1909M65
         |         M. monticolaB03
         |         M. montivagaR35
         |         M. nivescens Kirby 1900JG19
         |         M. octosignataR13
         |         M. perbrevisR35
         |         M. perihirtaR35
         |         M. proximaR35
         |         M. punctatissimaR26
         |         M. pyrenaicaL49 [=Chalicodoma pyrenaicaR35]
         |         M. quadridentata (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Apis quadridentataL02]
         |         M. quodi Vachal 1907M65
         |         ‘Chalicodoma’ ramdaraM65
         |         M. relativaR35
         |         M. rotundataDH02
         |         M. rotundipennis Kirby 1900JG19
         |         M. rufa (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Apis rufaL02]
         |         ‘Chalicodoma’ rufescensR35
         |         ‘Chalicodoma’ rufitarsis [incl. C. pyrrhopeza]R35
         |         M. sericansR13
         |         M. siculaR26 [=Chalicodoma siculaR35]
         |         ‘Chalicodoma’ stultaM65
         |         M. subatrella Rayment 1939M65
         |         M. subrixator [incl. Androgynella subrixator]R35
         |         M. swarbrecki Rayment 1946M65
         |         M. taua Strand 1911M65
         |         M. timberlakeiR35
         |         M. toxopei Alfken 1926M65
         |         M. tsurugensisF92
         |         M. versicolorMS01
         |         M. willughbiellaPK17
         |         M. wootaniR35
         |--M. (Megachile) [incl. Anthemois Robertson 1903, Cyphopyga Robertson 1903]M65
         |    `--*M. (M.) centuncularis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Apis centuncularis]M65
         |--M. (Acentron Mitchell 1934)M65
         |--M. (Amegachile)M65
         |--M. (Argyropile Mitchell 1934)M65
         |--M. (Austrochile)M65
         |--M. (Austromegachile Mitchell 1943)M65
         |--M. (Callomegachile)M65
         |--M. (Chalicodoma Lepeletier 1841)H18, M65
         |    `--M. (*C) muraria (Retzius 1783)L02, M65 [=Apis murariaM65, Xylocopa murariaL49; incl. Apis variansL49]
         |--M. (Chalicodomoides Michener 1962)M65
         |    |--M. (*C.) aethiops Smith 1853 [=Chalicodoma (C.) aethiops]M65
         |    |--M. (C.) clarki Cockerell 1914 [=Chalicodoma (C.) clarki]M65
         |    |--M. (C.) doddianum Cockerell 1906H18, M65 [=Chalicodoma (C.) doddianaM65]
         |    `--M. (C.) oppidalis Cockerell 1926 [=Chalicodoma (C.) oppidalis]M65
         |--M. (Chalicodomopsis) Engel 1999E01
         |    `--M. (*C.) glaesaria Engel 1999E01
         |--M. (Chelostomoda)M65
         |--M. (Chelostomoides Robertson 1901) (see below for synonymy)M65
         |    `--‘Chalicodoma’ (C.) georgicaM65
         |--M. (Chrysosarus Mitchell 1943)M65
         |--M. (Creightonella Cockerell 1908)H18, M65
         |    |--M. (*C.) mitimia [=Megachile mitimia]M65
         |    |--‘Creightonella’ albifronsM65
         |    |--‘Creightonella’ atrataM65
         |    |--‘Creightonella’ bellulaM65
         |    |--‘Creightonella’ consanguineaM65
         |    |--‘Creightonella’ fervidaM65
         |    |--‘Creightonella’ fraternaM65
         |    |--M. (C.) frontalis (Fabricius 1804)H18, M65 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--‘Creightonella’ takaoensisM65
         |--M. (Cressoniella Mitchell 1934)M65
         |--M. (Dactylomegachile Mitchell 1943)M65
         |--M. (Dasymegachile Mitchell 1943)M65
         |--M. (Delomegachile Viereck 1916)M65
         |--M. (Derotropis Mitchell 1936)M65
         |--M. (Eumegachilana Michener 1965)M65
         |    |--M. (*E.) clotho Smith 1861 [=Chalicodoma (*E.) clotho]M65
         |    |--M. (E.) gigantea Friese 1911 [=Chalicodoma (E.) gigantea]M65
         |    |--M. (E.) godeffroyi Friese 1911 [=Chalicodoma (E.) godeffroyi]M65
         |    |--M. (E.) ingens Friese 1903 [=Chalicodoma (E.) ingens]M65
         |    |--‘Chalicodoma’ (E.) monticolaM65
         |    |--M. (E.) pluto Smith 1861 [=Chalicodoma (E.) pluto]M65
         |    `--‘Chalicodoma’ (E.) tuberculataM65
         |--M. (Eumegachile Friese 1898)M65
         |--M. (Eutricharaea)M65
         |--M. (Hackeriapis)H18
         |--M. (Holcomegachile Moure 1953)M65
         |--M. (Leptorachis Mitchell 1934)M65
         |--M. (Litomegachile Mitchell 1934)M65
         |--M. (Megachiloides Mitchell 1924)M65
         |--M. (Melanosarus Mitchell 1934)M65
         |--M. (Mitchellapis Michener 1965)M65
         |    |--M. (*M.) fabricator Smith 1868M65
         |    |--M. (M.) batchelori Cockerell 1929M65
         |    |--M. (M.) conaminis Cockerell 1926M65
         |    |--M. (M.) fuscitarsis Cockerell 1912M65
         |    |--M. (M.) semiclara Cockerell 1929M65
         |    `--M. (M.) vestitor Cockerell 1910M65
         |--M. (Neomegachile Mitchell 1934)M65
         |--M. (Phaenosarus Mitchell 1934)M65
         |--M. (Pseudocentron Mitchell 1934)M65
         |--M. (Ptilosarus Mitchell 1943)M65
         |--M. (Rhodomegachile Michener 1965)H18, M65
         |    |--M. (*R.) abdominalis Smith 1853 [=Chalicodoma (*R.) abdominalis]M65
         |    |--M. (R.) deanii Rayment 1935M65 [=M. (Hackeriapis) deaniiR35, Chalicodoma (R.) deaniiM65]
         |    `--M. (R.) ferrugineaH18
         |--M. (Sayapis Titus 1905) [incl. Ceratias Robertson 1903, Gnathocera Provancher 1882]M65
         |--M. (Schizomegachile Michener 1965)M65
         |    |--M. (*S.) monstrosa Smith 1868H18, M65 [=Chalicodoma (*S.) monstrosaM65]
         |    `--M. (S.) cornifera Radoszkowski 1874 [=Chalicodoma (S.) cornifera]M65
         |--M. (Thaumatosoma Smith 1865)M65
         |    |--‘Chalicodoma’ (*T.) duboulaii (Smith 1865) [=*Thaumatosoma duboulaii]M65
         |    `--M. (T.) remeata Cockerell 1913H18, M65 [=Chalicodoma (Hackeriapis) remeataM65]
         |--M. (Tylomegachile Moure 1953)M65
         |--M. (Xanthosarus Robertson 1903)M65
         `--M. (Xeromegachile Mitchell 1934)M65

Megachile (Chelostomoides Robertson 1901) [incl. Gnathodon Robertson 1903 nec Jardine 1845 nec Verrill 1899, Oligotropus Robertson 1903, Sarogaster Robertson 1918]M65

Megachile (Creightonella) frontalis (Fabricius 1804)H18, M65 [=Anthophora frontalisM65; incl. Megachile alecto Smith 1861M65, M. assimilis Friese 1903M65, M. fuscipennis Friese 1903M65, M. lachesis Smith 1861M65, Creightonella lachesisOK99, M. megista Cameron 1901M65]

Megachile Latreille 1802E01 [incl. Archimegachile Alfken 1933M65, Digronoceras Cockerell 1931M65, Gronoceras Cockerell 1907M65, Maximegachile Guiglia & Pasteels 1961M65, Pseudomegachile Friese 1898M65, Stelodides Moure 1953M65]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207–16211.

[C01] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—XI. New and little-known insects from New Mexico. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 333–337.

[DH02] Donovan, B. J., A. Havron, D. M. Leathwick & J. S. Ishay. 2002. Release of Sphecophaga orientalis Donovan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae) in New Zealand as a possible ‘new association’ biocontrol agent for the adventive social wasps Vespula germanica (F.) and Vespula vulgaris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespinae). New Zealand Entomologist 25: 17–25.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[H18] Houston, T. 2018. A Guide to Native Bees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[K18] Kohl, F. F. 1918. Die Hautflügergruppe “Sphecinae”. IV. Teil. Die natürliche Gattung Sceliphron Klug (Pelopoeus Latr.). Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museum in Wien 32: 1–171.

[KK96] Kumar, N. R., & R. Kumar. 1996. Mites in plant pollinator ecosystem: influence on conserving biodiversity. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 133–136. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d’observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[OK99] OConnor, B. M., & J. S. H. Klompen. 1999. Phylogenetic perspectives on mite-insect associations: the evolution of acarinaria. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 63–71. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

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