Megaloptera

New Zealand dobsonfly Archichauliodes diversus, copyright Steve Reekie.

Belongs within: Neuropterida.

The Megaloptera, alderflies and dobsonflies, are a group of long-winged insects with aquatic predatory larvae. Recent species are divided between the families Sialidae and Corydalidae; Corydalidae have three ocelli and simple tarsi whereas Sialidae lack ocelli and have the fourth tarsal segment prominently bilobed. Males of some Corydalidae have the mandibles enormously elongate (Theischinger 1991).

Characters (from Theischinger 1991): Mandibulate, endopterygote Neoptera, with two pairs of subequal, functional membranous wings and very soft abdomen. Larvae aquatic; mandibulate, with large prothorax, functional legs and lateral abdominal gills. Pupae decticous and exarate.

<==Megaloptera [Corydalida, Sialoidea]
| i. s.: Chauliosialis sukatshevaeK-P91, S02
| Tychtodelopterum [Tychtodelopteridae]MW15
|--Euchauliodes [Euchauliodidae]GE05
| `--E. distinctusK-P91
|--SialidaeGE05
| |--IndosialisP02
| |--Austrosialis ignicollisT91, ZS10
| |--StenosialisT91
| |--ProtosialisR70
| |--Dobbertinia [Dobbertiniidae]GE05
| | `--D. reticulataGE05
| `--Sialis Latreille 1802L02
| |--*S. lutariaL02, VM20 [=Semblis lutariaL02]
| |--S. californicaWHW10
| |--S. fuliginosaRD77
| |--S. hamataTW05
| |--S. mohriWHW10
| `--S. strausiS02
`--CorydalidaeGE05
| i. s.: ParachauliodesYS01
|--+--Corydalus Latreille 1802L02 [CorydalinaeT91]
| | |--*C. cornutus (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Hemerobius cornutusL02]
| | `--C. armatusWHW10
| `--ProtohermesVM20
| |--P. grandisK-P83
| `--P. xanthodesVM20
`--Chauliodinae [Chauliodidae]T91
| i. s.: Cretochaulus lacustrisP02
| Neohermes californicusWHW10
| NigroniaWHW10
| |--N. fasciatusHR11
| `--N. serricornisWHW10
`--ChauliodiniR70
|--Chauliodes Latreille 1802L02
| |--*C. pectinicornis [=Hemerobius pectinicornis]L02
| `--C. prisca Pictet 1854P92
|--ProtochauliodesT91
| |--P. biconicusT91
| `--P. kirramaeT91
`--ArchichauliodesT91
| i. s.: A. dubitatisH74
|--A. (Archichauliodes)T91
| |--A. (A.) anagaurusT91
| |--A. (A.) deceptorT91
| |--A. (A.) diversusT91
| |--A. (A.) guttiferusT91
| |--A. (A.) polypastusT91
| `--A. (A.) uncinatusT91
`--A. (Apochauliodes) cervulusT91

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H74] Helson, G. A. H. 1974. Insect Pests: Identification, life history, and control of pests of farms, horticulture, gardens, and public health. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[HR11] Heraty, J., F. Ronquist, J. M. Carpenter, D. Hawks, S. Schulmeister, A. P. Dowling, D. Murray, J. Munro, W. C. Wheeler, N. Schiff & M. Sharkey. 2011. Evolution of the hymenopteran megaradiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60: 73–88.

[K-P83] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of the insect wing and wing articulation from the arthropodan leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61: 1618–1669.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 176–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Megaloptera (alderflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 465–471. Melbourne University Press.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TW05] Terry, M. D., & M. F. Whiting. 2005. Mantophasmatodea and phylogeny of the lower neopterous insects. Cladistics 21: 240–257.

[T91] Theischinger, G. 1991. Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1 pp. 516–520. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[VM20] Vasilikopoulos, A., B. Misof, K. Meusemann, D. Lieberz, T. Flouri, R. G. Beutel, O. Niehuis, T. Wappler, J. Rust, R. S. Peters, A. Donath, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Mayer, D. Bartel, A. Böhm, S. Liu, P. Kapli, C. Greve, J. E. Jepson, X. Liu, X. Zhou, H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck. 2020. An integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary history and divergence times of Neuropterida (Insecta: Holometabola). BMC Evolutionary Biology 20: 64.

[WHW10] Winterton, S. L., N. B. Hardy & B. M. Wiegmann. 2010. On wings of lace: phylogeny and Bayesian divergence time estimates of Neuropterida (Insecta) based on morphological and molecular data. Systematic Entomology 35: 349–378.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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