Megalosauroidea

Lower jaw of Megalosaurus bucklandii, copyright Ghedoghedo.

Belongs within: Tetanurae.

The Megalosauroidea is a clade of large theropods known from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian) to the mid-Cretaceous (Cenomanian) (Holtz et al. 2004). In some references this clade is referred to as the Spinosauroidea but the name Megalosauroidea has priority. Megalosaurus bucklandii from the Middle Jurassic of England was one of the first fossil dinosaurs recognised; many other predatory theropods have been subsequently referred to this genus but most (if not all) are currently agreed to be either misplaced or not diagnostic.

Synapomorphies (from Holtz et al. 2004, as Spinosauroidea): Premaxillary body rostral to external nares longer than portion of body ventral to nares, angle between rostral margin and alveolar margin less than 70°; maxila rostral ramus present, rostrocaudally as long or longer than dorsoventrally; lacrimal rostral ramus dorsoventrally pinched and narrow; deltopectoral crest greater than 45% of humerus length, well developed; humerus with well-developed olecranon fossa on caudal face of distal end.

<==Megalosauroidea [Spinosauroidea]NS15
    |  i. s.: Altispinax Huene 1923N85, HMC04
    |           `--*A. dunkeri (Dames 1884) [=Megalosaurus dunkeri]HMC04
    |         Magnosaurus Huene 1932OES10, HMC04
    |           `--M. nethercombensis (Huene 1926)HMC04 [=Megalosaurus nethercombensisHMC04, Streptospondylus nethercombensisP10]
    |--+--Dubreuillosaurus valesdunensis(Allain 2002)NS15, P10, HMC04 [=Poekilopleuron valesdunensisP10]
    |  `--Afrovenator Sereno, Wilson et al. 1994NS15, HMC04
    |       `--A. abakensis Sereno, Wilson et al. 1994HMC04
    `--+--+--+--Eustreptospondylus Walker 1964NS15, HMC04
       |  |  |    `--E. oxoniensis Walker 1964 [=Magnosaurus oxoniensis]HMC04
       |  |  `--Streptospondylus Meyer 1832NS15, HMC04
       |  |       |--S. altdorfensis Meyer 1832 [incl. Laelaps gallicus Cope 1867]HMC04
       |  |       `--S. cuvieri Owen 1842 (n. d.)HMC04 [=Megalosaurus cuvieriP88]
       |  `--SpinosauridaeHMC04
       |       |--Baryonychinae [Baryonychidae]HMC04
       |       |    |--Baryonyx Charig & Milner 1986NS15, HMC04
       |       |    |    `--B. walkeri Charig & Milner 1986HMC04
       |       |    |--Suchomimus Sereno, Beck et al. 1998HMC04
       |       |    |    `--S. tenerensis Sereno, Beck et al. 1998HMC04 [=Baryonyx tenerensisP10]
       |       |    `--Cristatusaurus Taquet & Russell 1998HMC04
       |       |         `--C. lapparenti Taquet & Russell 1998HMC04
       |       `--SpinosaurinaeHMC04
       |            |--Irritator Martill, Cruickshank et al. 1996HMC04
       |            |    `--I. challengeri Martill, Cruickshank et al. 1996HMC04
       |            |--Angaturama Kellner & Campos 1996HMC04
       |            |    `--A. limai Kellner & Campos 1996HMC04
       |            `--Spinosaurus Stromer 1915HMC04
       |                 |--S. aegyptiacus Stromer 1915HMC04
       |                 `--S. maroccanus Russell 1996HMC04
       `--Megalosauridae [Megalosaurinae]B08
            |  i. s.: Kelmayisaurus Dong 1973B93, HMC04
            |           `--K. petrolicus Dong 1973HMC04
            |         Poekilopleuron Eudes-Deslongchamps 1838HMC04 (see below for synonymy)
            |           |--*P. bucklandii Eudes-Deslongchamps 1838AC02 (see below for synonymy)
            |           `--P. schmidti Kiprijanov 1883 (n. d.)HMC04
            |--Duriavenator Benson 2008RF12, B08
            |    `--*D. hesperis (Waldman 1974) [=Megalosaurus hesperis]B08
            `--+--Torvosaurus Galton & Jensen 1979RF12, HMC04 [incl. Edmarka Bakker, Kralis et al. 1992HMC04]
               |    `--T. tanneri Galton & Jensen 1979 (see below for synonymy)HMC04
               `--Megalosaurus Buckland 1824RF12, HMC04
                    |--*M. bucklandii Ritgen 1826AC02, HMC04
                    |--M. cambrensis (Newton 1899)B93
                    |--M. chubutensis Corro 1974 (n. d.)HMC04
                    |--M. dabukaensisD07
                    |--M. hungaricus Nopcsa 1901 (n. d.)HMC04
                    |--M. inexpectatus Corro 1966 (n. d.)HMC04
                    |--M. ingens Janensch 1920 (n. d.)HMC04 [=Ceratosaurus ingensP88]
                    |--M. insignis Eudes-Deslongchamps 1870 (n. d.)HMC04
                    |--M. lonzeensis Dollo 1883 (n. d.)HMC04
                    |--M. lydekkeri Huene 1926 (n. d.) [=Magnosaurus lydekkeri]HMC04
                    |--M. meriani Greppin 1870 (n. d.)HMC04
                    |--M. pannoniensis Seeley 1881 (n. d.)HMC04
                    |--M. phillipsiD07
                    |--M. pombali Lapparent & Zbyszewski 1957 (n. d.)HMC04
                    |--M. terquemi Huene 1926 (n. d.)HMC04
                    `--M. tibetensisD07

Poekilopleuron Eudes-Deslongchamps 1838HMC04 [=Poecilopleuron (l. c.)AC02, Poecilopleurum (l. c.)AC02, Poicilopleuron (l. c.)AC02, Poikilopleuron (l. c.)AC02]

Poekilopleuron bucklandii Eudes-Deslongchamps 1838AC02 [=Poecilopleuron bucklandi (l. c.)AC02, Poecilopleurum bucklandi (l. c.)AC02, Poekilopleuron bucklandi (l. c.)AC02, Poicilopleuron bucklandi (l. c.)AC02, Poikilopleuron bucklandi (l. c.)AC02, Megalosaurus poikilopleuron Huene 1926AC02, Poekilopleuron poikilopleuronP88]

Torvosaurus tanneri Galton & Jensen 1979 [=Megalosaurus tanneri; incl. Edmarka rex Bakker, Kralis et al. 1992]HMC04

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AC02] Allain, R., & D. J. Chure. 2002. Poekilopleuron bucklandii, the theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) of Normandy. Palaeontology 45 (6): 1107–1121.

[B08] Benson, R. B. J. 2008. A redescription of ‘Megalosaurus’ hesperis (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Inferior Oolite (Bajocian, Middle Jurassic) of Dorset, United Kingdom. Zootaxa 1931: 57–67.

[B93] Benton, M. J. 1993. Reptilia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 681–715. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[HMC04] Holtz, T. R., Jr, R. E. Molnar & P. J. Currie. 2004. Basal Tetanurae. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 71–110. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[NS15] Novas, F. E., L. Salgado, M. Suárez, F. L. Agnolin, M. D. Ezcurra, N. R. Chimento, R. de la Cruz, M. P. Isasi, A. O. Vargas & D. Rubilar-Rogers. 2015. An enigmatic plant-eating theropod from the Late Jurassic period of Chile. Nature 522: 331–334.

[N85] Norman, D. 1985 (reprinted 2000). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Salamander Books: London.

[OES10] Ortega, F., F. Escaso & J. L. Sanz. 2010. A bizarre, humped Carcharodontosauria (Theropoda) from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain. Nature 467: 203–206.

[P88] Paul, G. S. 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World: A Complete Illustrated Guide. Simon & Schuster: New York.

[P10] Paul, G. S. 2010. Dinosaurs: A Field Guide. A & C Black.

[RF12] Rauhut, O. W. M., C. Foth, H. Tischlinger & M. A. Norell. 2012. Exceptionally preserved juvenile megalosauroid theropod dinosaur with filamentous integument from the Late Jurassic of Germany. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (29): 11746–11751.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *