Megasecoptera

Reconstruction of Sylvohymen sibiricus by A. G. Ponomarenko, from Sinitshenkova (2002).

Belongs within: Palaeoptera.

The Megasecoptera is a group of plant-sucking insects with elongate, petiolate wings known from the Middle Carboniferous to Late Permian (Sinitshenkova 2002). Distinct paranotal lobes are present in Eubleptoptera but are lost in more derived suborders (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Sinitshenkova 2002): Size medium to large (wing length 10-100 mm). Body slender (more robust in Eubleptoptera). Head small, prognathous, with large convex eyes and long sucking beak. Antenna about as long as body. Thoracic segments of similar size, pronotal paranota large in Eubleptoptera, reduced to several thorn-like projections or lost in others. Wings spread permanently, fore and hind wings alike, long, often petiolate, with fore margin straight (relatively short and wide in small, dipterous Permothemistidae). Cross-veins not numerous, often forming regular rows, RS and MA bases connected by stabilised cross-vein and usually angular there (unless cross-vein replaced by temporal fusion of both RS and MA for a distance, or cross-vein slanted and thus forming false base of either). Fore leg short, middle and hind legs poorly known. Thorax and abdomen sometimes with cuticular projections, long or short, simple or branched, and arranged in regular rows. Male genitalia with 2-3-segmented claspers, male cercus (where known) sinuate basally. Ovipositor (where known) short, wide. Nymph (where known) similar to adult but with beak short, wing pads bent backward when large, pterothoracic segments with lateral spines near wing pad base, abdominal terga with hind margin denticulate. Imaginal moults not proven.

<==Megasecoptera [Mischopterida]
| i. s.: PseudohymenGE05
| Xenoptera riojanaensis Pinto 1986RJ93
| AlectoneuridaeRJ93
|--Eubleptoptera [Eubleptidodea, Eubleptina, Eubleptoidea]GE05
| |--AnchineuridaeGE05
| |--EngisopteridaeGE05
| |--SphecorydaloididaeGE05
| |--EubleptusS02 [EubleptidaeGE05]
| | `--E. danielsiS02
| `--NamurodiaphaS02 [NamurodiaphidaeGE05]
| `--N. sippelorum Kukalová-Peck & Brauckmann 1990RJ93
`--+--Dicliptera [Archodonata, Permothemistida, Permothemistina]GE05
| | i. s.: Permothemidia caudataD70
| |--OgassidaeS02
| |--DoterD70 [DoteridaeS02]
| | `--D. minorD70
| |--RectineuraD70 [RectineuridaeS02]
| | `--R. lineataD70
| |--KansasiaS02 [KansasiidaeGE05]
| | `--K. pulchraS02
| |--Diathemidae [Diathemoptera]GE05
| | |--Diathema tenerumS02
| | `--Diathemidia monstruosaRJ93
| `--PermothemistidaeS02
| |--Permothemis libelluloidesR70
| `--IdeliellaS02
|--Eumegasecoptera [Mischopterina]GE05
| |--AllectoneuridaeS02
| |--MoravohymenidaeGE05
| |--CorydaloidesB90 [CorydaloididaeGE05]
| | `--C. scudderiB90
| |--FoririidaeS02
| |--SphecopteridaeGE05
| |--IchnoptilidaeS02
| |--RaphidiopseidaeS02
| |--ParabrodiidaeS02
| |--CarbonopteraRJ93 [CarbonopteridaeGE05]
| | `--C. furcaradiiRJ93
| |--Aykhal [Aykhalidae]S02
| | `--A. helenaeS02
| |--VorkutiaS02 [VorkutiidaeGE05]
| | `--V. diminaS02
| `--Mischoptera [Mischopteridae]GE05
| |--M. douglassiS02
| `--M. nigraGE05
`--Protohymenoptera [Aspidothoracina]GE05
|--AspidohymenidaeGE05
|--BrodiidaeGE05
|--CaulopteridaeGE05
|--KaroohymenS02 [ScytohymenidaeGE05]
| `--K. delicatulusS02
|--AncopteraS02 [AncopteridaeGE05]
| `--A. permianaS02
|--HanaS02 [HanidaeGE05]
| `--H. filiaS02
|--BrodiopteraRJ93 [BrodiopteridaeGE05]
| |--B. cumberlandensisRJ93
| `--B. stricklani Nelson & Tidwell 1988RJ93
|--AspidothoraxR70 [AspidothoracidaeGE05]
| |--A. aestalis Brauckmann 1991RJ93
| `--A. triangularisR70
|--ProtohymenidaeGE05
| |--Protohymen permianusR35
| `--Sunohymen xishanensis Hong 1985RJ93
`--BardohymenidaeGE05
|--Bardohymen magnipenniferRJ93
`--SylvohymenS02
|--S. peckae Brauckmann 1988RJ93
|--S. robustusS02
`--S. sibiricusS02

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B90] Brongniart, C. 1890. Insectes fossiles des houillères de Commentry (Allier). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: ccxxxvi.

[D70] Demoulin, G. 1970. Remarques critiques sur des larves «ephemeromorphes» du Permien. Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique 46 (3): 1–10.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Fossil history. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 168–186. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Superorder Dictyoneuridea Handlirsch, 1906 (=Palaeodictyopteroidea). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 115–124. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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