Megophryidae

Xizang alpine toad Scutiger boulengeri, copyright Z. Y. Yao.

Belongs within: Pelobatoidea.
Contains: Megophrys, Xenophrys, Leptobrachium.

The Megophryidae are a family of frogs found in southern and eastern Asia, where they primarily inhabit leaf litter alongside streams (Frost et al. 2006).

Synapomorphies (from Frost et al. 2006): M. subarcualis rectus accessorius present; suspensorium low; ceratohyals absent or almost absent in adults; intervertebral cartilages with an ossified center; tongue paddle-shaped.

Megophryidae [Megalophreidina]PW11
|--Megophryinae [Megophryini]FG06
| |--+--Atympanophrys Tian & Hu 1983CZ17, FG06
| | | | i. s.: A. nankiangensisCZ17 [=Megophrys nankiangensisCZ17, Xenophrys nankiangensisPW11]
| | | |--A. wawuensis [=Megophrys wawuensis]CZ17
| | | `--+--A. gigantica [=Megophrys gigantica]CZ17
| | | `--A. shapingensis (Liu 1950)CZ17, L50 [=Megophrys shapingensisCZ17, Xenophrys shapingensisPW11]
| | `--Brachytarsophrys Tian & Hu 1983CZ17, FG06
| | |--B. carinenseCZ17
| | |--B. feaePW11
| | `--B. platyparietusPW11
| `--+--Ophryophryne Boulenger 1903CZ17, FG06
| | |--O. gertiCZ17
| | |--O. hansiPW11
| | `--O. microstomaPW11
| `--+--MegophrysFB17
| `--XenophrysCZ17
`--Leptobrachiinae [Leptobrachiini]FG06
| i. s.: Leptobrachella Smith 1925FG06
|--Leptolalax Dubois 1980FB17, FG06
| | i. s.: L. alpinusFB17
| | L. gracilisFG06
| | L. mjobergiFG06
| | L. ventripunctatusCZ17
| |--+--L. arayaiPW11
| | `--L. pictusPW11
| `--+--+--L. bourretiPW11
| | `--L. pelodytoidesPW11
| `--+--L. liuiPW11
| `--L. oshanensisPW11
`--+--Scutiger Theobald 1868FB17, FG06 (see below for synonymy)
| | i. s.: S. alticola (Procter 1922) [=Cophophryne alticola]L50
| | S. bhutanensis [=S. (Aelurophryne) bhutanensis]FG06
| | ‘Aelurophryne’ brevipes Liu 1950L50
| | S. gongshanensisFB17
| | ‘Aelurophryne’ maculata Liu 1950L50
| | S. nepalensisFG06
| | S. nyingchiensisFG06
| | S. pingii Liu 1943L50
| | S. popei Liu 1947L50
| | S. rugosa Liu 1943L50
| | S. schmidti Liu 1947L50
| | S. sikkimensisFG06 [=Bombinator sikkimensisL50, Cophophryne sikkimensisL50]
| | ‘Aelurophryne’ tainingensis Liu 1950L50
| |--S. chintingensisPW11
| `--+--S. glandulatus (Liu 1950)PW11, L50 [=Aelurophryne glandulataL50, S. (Aelurophryne) glandulatusFG06]
| `--+--S. boulengeriPW11
| `--+--S. mammatus (Günther 1896)PW11, L50 (see below for synonymy)
| `--+--S. muliensisPW11
| `--S. tuberculatusPW11
`--+--Oreolalax Myers & Leviton 1962FB17, FG06 [Oreolalaxinae]
| |--O. rhodostigmatusPW11
| |--O. (Aelurolalax) weigoldiFG06
| `--O. (Oreolalax)FG06
| |--+--O. (O.) lichuanensisPW11
| | `--+--O. (O.) pingiiPW11
| | `--O. (O.) schmidtiPW11
| `--+--+--+--O. (O.) chuanbeiensisPW11
| | | `--O. (O.) multipunctatusPW11
| | `--+--O. (O.) omeimontisPW11
| | `--+--O. (O.) nanjiangensisPW11
| | `--O. (O.) popeiPW11
| `--+--O. (O.) rugosusPW11
| `--+--O. (O.) jingdongensisPW11
| `--+--O. (O.) xiangchengensisPW11
| `--+--O. (O.) liangbeiensisPW11
| `--O. (O.) majorPW11
`--LeptobrachiumFB17

Scutiger Theobald 1868 non Paulet 1793 (ICBN)FB17, FG06 [=Cophophryne Boulenger 1887L50; incl. Aelurophryne Boulenger 1919L50]

Scutiger mammatus (Günther 1896)PW11, L50 [=Bufo mammatusL50, *Aelurophryne mammataL50, Scutiger (Aelurophryne) mammatusFG06; incl. A. gigas Zarevsky 1925L50]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CZ17] Chen, J.-M., W.-W. Zhou, N. A. Poyarkov, Jr, B. L. Stuart, R. M. Brown, A. Lathrop, Y.-Y. Wang, Z.-Y. Yuan, K. Jiang, M. Hou, H.-M. Chen, C. Suwannapoom, S. N. Nguyen, T. V. Duong, T. J. Papenfuss, R. W. Murphy, Y.-P. Zhang & J. Che. 2017. A novel multilocus phylogenetic estimation reveals unrecognized diversity in Asian horned toads, genus Megophrys sensu lato (Anura: Megophryidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 106: 28–43.

[FB17] Feng, Y.-J., D. C. Blackburn, D. Liang, D. M. Hillis, D. B. Wake, D. C. Cannatella & P. Zhang. 2017. Phylogenomics reveals rapid, simultaneous diversification of three major clades of Gondwanan frogs at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 114 (29): E5864–E5870.

[FG06] Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. de Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green & W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–370.

[L50] Liu, C.-C. 1950. Amphibians of western China. Fieldiana: Zoology Memoirs 2: 1–400.

[PW11] Pyron, R. A., & J. J. Wiens. 2011. A large-scale phylogeny of Amphibia including over 2800 species, and a revised classification of extant frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61: 543–583.

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