Antenna of male Terobiella nigriceps, from Bouček (1988).

Belongs within: Chalcidoidea.

Terobiella is an Australian genus of wasps causing galls on leaves of Eucalyptus (Bouček 1988).

Trichilogaster is a genus of wasps forming galls on Acacia species (Bouček 1988).

Encyrtocephalus is a genus of wasps found in Africa and Australia that cause galls in trees such as Acacia, Eucalyptus and Brachychiton (Bouček 1988).

Perilampella acaciaediscoloris: an Australian gall wasp
Published 10 February 2017

The small but incredibly diverse chalcidoid wasps are mostly known as parasitoids, their larvae attacking the eggs and young of others insects. Some, however, have chosen the vegetarian option, inserting their eggs into plant rather than animal tissue. As the larva develops, it induces the host plant to develop an often bizarre-looking growth around it that provides both shelter and food; this growth is known as a gall.

Antenna, forewing venation and dorsum of Perilampella acaciaediscoloris, from Bouček (1988).

Perilampella acaciaediscoloris is an gall-forming wasp that was first described by Froggatt in 1892 from galls that he collected on the wattle Acacia discolor, a species now regarded as a synonym of the sunshine wattle A. terminalis of south-eastern Australia. Froggatt placed his species in the genus Cynips (which is not part of the Chalcidoidea but belongs to a different micro-wasp superfamily, the Cynipoidea) but it is now placed in the chalcid subfamily Ormocerinae in the (polyphyletic) Pteromalidae. Ormocerinae are fairly generalised ‘pteromalids’ that are non-metallic in colour and often finely sculpted. So far as is known, ormocerines are all associated with galls in one way or another, either as gall-causers themselves or as inquilines (species that lay their eggs in the galls caused by other insects). Another ormocerine species, Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, has been introduced from Australia to South Africa to help control the Sydney golden wattle Acacia longifolia.

The related ormocerine Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae, copyright Simon van Noort. Perilampella acaciaediscoloris most obviously differs from this species in its hairier and darker wings, and more shiny mesosoma.

The genus Perilampella differs from other ormocerines in being particularly shiny, with little clear setation. Bouček (1988) listed four Australian species in the genus, noting that P. acaciaediscoloris could be recognised by its very dark, long wings and shiny orange-yellow mesosoma. Froggatt (1892) described the galls of P. acaciaediscoloris as formed at the inception of a leaf bud or new shoot. Sometimes, they would be little more than swellings at the base of the shoot. More often, they would be oval with three irregular horns formed from aborted leaf buds. Sometimes, P. acaciaediscoloris galls would be the target of inquilines of their own that caused the gall to degrade to a shapeless mass.

Systematics of Melanosomellidae
<==Melanosomellidae [Brachyscelidiphagini, Melanosomellini]
    |--Trichilogaster Mayr 1906 [incl. Epiperilampus Girault 1913]B88
    |    |--*T. maideni (Froggatt 1892) [=Cynips maideni]B88
    |    |--T. acaciaelongifoliae (Froggatt 1892) [=Cynips acaciaelongifoliae, T. longifoliae Mayr 1905]B88
    |    |--T. arabicaB88
    |    |--T. atra (Girault 1915) [=Epiperilampus ater]B88
    |    |--T. atricorpus (Girault 1931) [=Epiperilampus atricorpus; incl. E. atricorpus socratis Girault 1931]B88
    |    |--T. channingi (Girault 1913) [=Epiperilampus channingi]B88
    |    |--T. esculenta Ferrière in Gahan & Ferrière 1947 [=T. esculentus]B88
    |    |--T. flavivena (Girault 1931) [=Coelocybelloides flavivena]B88
    |    |--T. pendulae Mayr 1905B88
    |    |--T. significata (Girault 1913) [=Epiperilampus significatus]B88
    |    |--T. signiventris (Girault 1931) (see below for synonymy)B88
    |    `--T. xanthocephala (Girault 1913) [=*Epiperilampus xanthocephalus]B88
    |--Terobiella Ashmead 1900 (see below for synonymy)B88
    |    |--*T. flavifrons Ashmead 1900 [incl. *Melanosomella flavipes Girault 1913]B88
    |    |--T. adolphi (Girault 1931) [=Perilampoides adolphi]B88
    |    |--T. bicolor (Girault 1913) [=*Perilampoides bicolor]B88
    |    |--T. cinctitibiae (Girault 1931) [=Perilampoides cinctitibiae]B88
    |    |--T. dilutiventris (Girault 1913) [=Epiperilampus dilutiventris]B88
    |    |--T. eucalypti (Gallard 1930) [=Tepperella eucalypti]B88
    |    |--T. nigriceps (Ashmead 1904) (see below for synonymy)B88
    |    |--T. particolor (Girault 1915) [=Perilampoides particolor]B88
    |    |--T. regalis (Girault 1931) [=Perilampoides regalis]B88
    |    |--T. scutata (Girault 1931) [=Perilampoides scutatus]B88
    |    |--T. similis (Girault 1917) [=Perilampoides similis]B88
    |    `--T. tennysoni (Girault 1920) [=Perilampoides tennysoni]B88
    |--Encyrtocephalus Ashmead 1900 (see below for synonymy)B88
    |    |--*E. simplicipes Ashmead 1900B88
    |    |--E. albiclava (Girault 1915) [=Neorileyella (*Pseudorileya) albiclava]B88
    |    |--E. albipilum Girault 1931B88
    |    |--E. atrativentris Girault 1931B88
    |    |--E. fasciatus (Girault 1915) [=*Neorileyella fasciata]B88
    |    |--E. gallicola (Ashmead 1904) [=*Decatomothorax gallicola]B88
    |    |--E. hyalinus (Girault 1915) [=Neorileyella hyalina]B88
    |    |--E. io Girault 1931B88
    |    |--E. katrina (Girault 1931) [=Neorileyella katrina]B88
    |    |--E. mozarti Girault 1931B88
    |    |--E. notabilis [=*Eucyrtonotus notabilis]B88
    |    `--E. ophelia (Girault 1931) [=Neorileyella ophelia]B88
    |--Krivena Bouček 1988B88
    |    `--*K. pennata Bouček 1988B88
    |--Neoperilampus Girault & Dodd in Girault 1915B88
    |    `--*N. niger Girault & Dodd in Girault 1915B88
    |--Plastobelyta Kieffer 1906B88
    |    `--P. gallicolaB88
    |--Espinosa Gahan 1947B88
    |    `--E. nothofagiB88
    |--Neochalcissia Girault 1920B88
    |    `--*N. magniscapus Girault 1920B88
    |--Megamelanosoma Girault 1928B88
    |    `--*M. aeschyli Girault 1928B88
    |--Epelatus Girault 1928B88
    |    `--*E. eurytomoideus Girault 1928 [=*E. eurytomoidea]B88
    |--Alloderma Ashmead 1904B88
    |    `--*A. maculatipennis Ashmead 1904 (see below for synonymy)B88
    |--Alyxiaphagus Riek 1962B88
    |    `--*A. picturatus Riek 1962B88
    |--Wubina Bouček 1988B88
    |    `--*W. cardaleae Bouček 1988B88
    |--Cerna Bouček 1988B88
    |    `--*C. kohouti Bouček 1988B88
    |--Westra Bouček 1988B88
    |    `--*W. nigra Bouček 1988B88
    |--Hubena Bouček 1988B88
    |    `--*H. ruris Bouček 1988B88
    |--‘Edgaria’ Bouček 1988 non Bourguignat 1888B88
    |    `--*E. blackburni (Girault 1928) [=Tepperella blackburni, Terobiella blackburni]B88
    |--Nambouria Bouček 1988B88
    |    `--*N. ramulorum Bouček 1988B88
    |--Aditrochus Ruebsaamen 1902B88
    |    |--A. coihuensisMH11
    |    `--A. fagicolusB88
    |--Perilampomyia Girault 1916B88
    |    |--*P. notatifrons Girault 1916B88
    |    `--P. aeschyli Girault 1931B88
    |--Lisseurytoma Cameron 1912 [incl. Cratodecatoma Cameron 1912, Sphegigasteroides Girault 1913]B88
    |    |--*L. violaceitincta Cameron 1912 (see below for synonymy)B88
    |    `--L. decorata Ferrière in Gahan & Ferrière 1947B88
    |--Eurytomomma Girault 1920B88
    |    |--*E. aurifacies Girault 1920B88
    |    `--E. atricoxa Girault 1927B88
    |--Xantheurytoma Cameron 1912B88
    |    |--*X. flava Cameron 1912B88
    |    `--X. pallidicoxa (Girault 1928) [=Coelocybelloides pallidicoxa]B88
    |--Lincolna Girault 1940B88
    |    |--*L. aldrovandii Girault 1940B88
    |    `--L. sismondini (Girault 1931) [=Terobiella sismondini]B88
    |--Aeschylia Girault 1929B88
    |    |--*A. latiscapus Girault 1929B88
    |    |--A. mira Bouček 1988B88
    |    `--A. picta Bouček 1988B88
    |--Perilampella Girault & Dodd in Girault 1915 [incl. Trichilogastroides Ferrière in Gahan & Ferrière 1947]B88
    |    |--P. acaciaediscoloris (Froggatt 1892) (see below for synonymy)B88
    |    |--P. hecataeus (Walker 1839) (see below for synonymy)B88
    |    |--P. nigrisetae (Girault 1929) [=Coelocybelloides nigrisetae]B88
    |    `--P. pulchra (Girault 1929) [=Coelocybelloides pulchra]B88
    |--Brachyscelidiphaga Ashmead 1900 [incl. Coelocybella Girault 1913, Coelocybelloides Girault 1915]B88
    |    |--*B. flava Ashmead 1900 [incl. B. masaccioni Girault 1931]B88
    |    |--B. aeschyli Girault 1931B88
    |    |--B. aurea (Girault 1915) [=*Coelocybelloides aureus]B88
    |    |--B. pulchrivariegata (Girault 1915) [=Coelocybelloides pulchrivariegatus]B88
    |    |--‘Coelocybelloides’ trilineataG31
    |    `--B. variegata (Girault 1913) [=*Coelocybella variegata]B88
    |--Hansonita pertusaeBM22
    `--Systolomorpha Ashmead 1900BM22, B88 [incl. Aphotismus Girault 1913B88]
         |--*S. thyridopterygis Ashmead 1900B88
         |--S. nassaui Girault 1925B88
         |--S. nigra (Girault 1913) [=*Aphotismus niger]B88
         `--S. noblei Gahan in Gahan & Ferrière 1947B88

*Alloderma maculatipennis Ashmead 1904 [=Coelocybelloides bioculatus Girault 1916, Perilampella punctata Girault 1931]B88

Encyrtocephalus Ashmead 1900 [incl. Decatomothorax Ashmead 1904, Encyrtonotus (l. c.), Eucyrtonotus Silvestri 1915, Neorileyella Girault 1915, Pseudorileya Girault 1915]B88

*Lisseurytoma violaceitincta Cameron 1912 [incl. L. bicolor Gahan in Gahan & Ferrière 1947, *Cratodecatoma ruficeps Cameron 1912, *Sphegigasteroides rufinotum Girault 1913]B88

Perilampella acaciaediscoloris (Froggatt 1892) [=Cynips acaciaediscoloris, *Trichilogastroides acaciaediscoloris; incl. *Perilampella flammeithorax Girault 1915]B88

Perilampella hecataeus (Walker 1839) [=Miscogaster hecataeus, Lamprotatus hecataeus; incl. Coelocybelloides mediolineatus Girault 1916, Tepperella trilineata Cameron 1912, Tep. trimaculata (l. c.), Terobiella trilineata, Trichilogaster trilineata]B88

Terobiella Ashmead 1900 [incl. Melanosomella Girault 1913, Paraterobia Ashmead 1904, Perilampoides Girault 1913, Tepperella Cameron 1912]B88

Terobiella nigriceps (Ashmead 1904) [=*Paraterobia nigriceps; incl. Perilampoides aurantiscutum anna Girault 1931, Pe. aurantiscutum Girault 1916, Pe. flavithorax Girault 1915, *Tepperella maculiscutis Cameron 1912, Pe. aurantiscutum regis Girault 1931, Pe. aurantiscutum rex Girault 1931]B88

Trichilogaster signiventris (Girault 1931) [=Perilampella signiventris; incl. Epiperilampus adolphi Girault 1931, Trichilogaster adolphi, Coelocybelloides atraticorpus Girault 1931]B88

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[BM22] Burks, R., M.-D. Mitroiu, L. Fusu, J. M. Heraty, P. Janšta, S. Heydon, N. D.-S. Papilloud, R. S. Peters, E. V. Tselikh, J. B. Woolley, S. van Noort, H. Baur, A. Cruaud, C. Darling, M. Haas, P. Hanson, L. Krogmann & J.-Y. Rasplus. 2022. From hell’s heart I stab at thee! A determined approach towards a monophyletic Pteromalidae and reclassification of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 94: 13–88.

Froggatt, W. W. 1892. Notes on Australian Cynipidae, with descriptions of several new species. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, second series 7: 152–156.

[G31] Girault, A. A. 1931. A new habit in an old insect, Homo pudicus and new Eurytomidae. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 280–283).

[MH11] Munro, J. B., J. M. Heraty, R. A. Burks, D. Hawks, J. Mottern, A. Cruaud, J.-Y. Rasplus & P. Jansta. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of the Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). PLoS One 6 (11): e27023.

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