Meliphagidae

 Black-backed honeyeater Ptiloprora perstriata, photographed by Nik Borrow.

Belongs within: Meliphagoidea.
Contains: Meliphaga, Anthochaera, Lichenostomus, Manorina, Melidectes, Melithreptus, Myzomela, Gliciphila, Philemon, Lichmera, Phylidonyris.

The Meliphagidae include the honeyeaters, a diverse group of birds found primarily in Australasia and Oceania. Honeyeaters have tongues modified for feeding on nectar (hence their vernacular name), but also feed on insects.The Australian chats of the genus Epthianura and the gibberbird Ashbyia lovensis are more terrestrial, shorter-billed birds that have historically been treated as a separate family but are indicated by phylogenetic analysis to be nested well within the Meliphagidae.

Characters (from The Internet Bird Collection): Tiny to very large, typically slender passerines with variably long and usually decurved bill, short to long tail; generally drab plumage, often with conspicuous wing patches of yellow or white, many with areas of bare facial skin or wattles.

<==Meliphagidae [Melithreptidae]
    |--+--+--Acanthorhynchus Gould 1837ANM14, B94 [Acanthorhynchidae]
    |  |  |    |--A. superciliosus Gould 1837 [incl. A. s. stirlingi Mathews 1924, A. s. wilsoni Mathews 1912]WS48
    |  |  |    `--A. tenuirostrisJT12
    |  |  |         |--A. t. tenuirostrisM03
    |  |  |         |--A. t. cairnsensisM03
    |  |  |         |--A. t. dubiusM03
    |  |  |         `--A. t. halmaturinusM03
    |  |  `--+--Certhionyx variegatus Lesson 1830ANM14, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
    |  |     `--+--PycnopygiusBKB15
    |  |        |    |--P. cinereusJT12
    |  |        |    |--P. ixoidesJT12
    |  |        |    `--P. stictocephalusJT12
    |  |        `--+--Prosthemadera Gray 1840BKB15, CC10
    |  |           |    `--P. novaeseelandiae (Gmelin 1788) (see below for synonymy)CC10
    |  |           |         |--P. n. novaeseelandiae (see below for synonymy)CC10
    |  |           |         `--P. n. chathamensis Hartet 1928CC10
    |  |           `--Anthornis Gray 1840BKB15, CC10 [=Anthomiza Swainon 1837 (n. o.)CC10, Anthomyza Gray 1840 non Fallén 1810CC10]
    |  |                |--*A. melanura (Sparrman 1786) [=Certhia melanura, *Anthomiza caeruleocephala Swainson 1837]CC10
    |  |                |    |--A. m. melanura (see below for synonymy)CC10
    |  |                |    |--A. m. obscura Falla 1948CC10
    |  |                |    `--A. m. oneho Bartle & Sagar 1987CC10
    |  |                `--A. melanocephala Gray in Dieffenbach 1843 (see below for synonymy)CC10
    |  `--+--+--MeliphagaANM14
    |     |  `--+--StomioperaANM14
    |     |     |    |--S. flava [=Lichenostomus flavus]ANM14
    |     |     |    `--S. unicolor (Gould 1842) [=Ptilotis unicolor; incl. P. unicolor darbiski Mathews 1912]WS48
    |     |     `--+--+--+--+--‘Lichenostomus’ versicolorBKB15
    |     |        |  |  |  `--+--‘Lichenostomus’ fasciogularisBKB15
    |     |        |  |  |     `--Gavicalis virescens [=Lichenostomus virescens]ANM14
    |     |        |  |  `--PtilotulaANM14
    |     |        |  |       |--+--‘Lichenostomus’ ornatusBKB15
    |     |        |  |       |  `--P. penicillata [=Lichenostomus penicillatus]ANM14
    |     |        |  |       |       |--P. p. penicillataM03
    |     |        |  |       |       |--‘Lichenostomus’ p. carteriM03
    |     |        |  |       |       `--‘Lichenostomus’ p. leilavalensisM03
    |     |        |  |       `--P. flavescens [=Lichenostomus flavescens]ANM14
    |     |        |  |            |--P. f. flavescensM03
    |     |        |  |            `--‘Lichenostomus’ f. melvillensisM03
    |     |        |  `--+--+--Bolemoreus frenatus [=Lichenostomus frenatus]ANM14
    |     |        |     |  `--‘Lichenostomus’ hindwoodiBKB15
    |     |        |     `--+--Acanthagenys rufogularis Gould 1838BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
    |     |        |        `--AnthochaeraANM14
    |     |        `--+--+--Purnella albifrons (Gould 1840)ANM14, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
    |     |           |  `--+--‘Lichenostomus’ unicolorBKB15
    |     |           |     `--+--‘Lichenostomus’ chrysopsBKB15
    |     |           |        `--+--Caligavis obscura [=Lichenostomus obscurus]ANM14
    |     |           |           `--‘Lichenostomus’ subfrenatusBKB15
    |     |           `--+--LichenostomusANM14
    |     |              `--+--ManorinaBKB15
    |     |                 `--MelidectesJT12
    |     `--+--NesoptilotisANM14
    |        |    |--N. flavicollis [=Lichenostomus flavicollis]ANM14
    |        |    `--N. leucotis [=Lichenostomus leucotis]ANM14
    |        |         |--N. l. leucotisM03
    |        |         `--‘Lichenostomus’ l. novaenorciaeM03
    |        `--+--+--MelithreptusANM14
    |           |  `--Entomyzon cyanotis (Latham 1801)JT12, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
    |           |       |--E. c. cyanotisM03
    |           |       |--E. c. albipennisM03
    |           |       `--E. c. griseigularisM03
    |           `--+--Meliarchus sclateri [=Melidectes sclateri]ANM14
    |              `--+--Guadalcanaria inexpectataANM14
    |                 `--+--+--‘Xanthotis’ provocator [=Foulehaio provocator]ANM14
    |                    |  `--+--‘Gymnomyza’ samoensis [=Amoromyza samoensis]ANM14
    |                    |     `--FoulehaioANM14
    |                    |          |--F. procerior [=F. carunculatus procerior]ANM14
    |                    |          `--+--F. carunculatusANM14
    |                    |             `--F. taviuensis [=F. carunculatus taviuensis]ANM14
    |                    `--GymnomyzaJT12
    |                         |--*G. aubryanaANM14
    |                         `--G. viridis [=Amoromyza viridis]ANM14
    |                              |--G. v. viridisANM14
    |                              `--G. v. brunneirostrisANM14
    `--+--+--+--Sugomel nigerANM14 [=Certhionyx nigerJT12]
       |  |  `--+--Vosea Gilliard 1960ANM14
       |  |     |    `--V. whitemanensis [=Melidectes whitemanensis]ANM14
       |  |     `--MyzomelaANM14
       |  `--+--+--Glycichaera fallaxANM14
       |     |  `--PtiloproraJT12
       |     |       |--P. erythropleuraJT12
       |     |       |--P. guiseiJT12
       |     |       |--P. mayriJT12
       |     |       |--P. meekianaJT12
       |     |       |--P. perstriataJT12
       |     |       `--P. plumbeaJT12
       |     `--GliciphilaANM14
       `--+--+--+--Stresemannia bougainvilleiANM14
          |  |  `--+--ConopophilaANM14
          |  |     |    |--C. albogularisJT12
          |  |     |    |--C. rufogularis (Gould 1842) [=Entomophila rufogularis]WS48
          |  |     |    `--C. whiteiJT12
          |  |     `--RamsayornisANM14
          |  |          |--R. fasciatusJT12
          |  |          |    |--R. f. fasciatusM03
          |  |          |    `--R. f. broomeiM03
          |  |          `--R. modestusJT12
          |  `--+--+--Ashbyia lovensisANM14
          |     |  `--Epthianura Gould 1838JT12, B94 [Ephthianuridae]
          |     |       |--E. crocea Castelnau & Ramsay 1877BKB15, WS48 [incl. Leachena crocea boweri Mathews 1922WS48]
          |     |       `--+--E. tricolor Gould 1840ANM14, WS48 [incl. E. tricolor assimilis Mathews 1912WS48]
          |     |          `--+--E. albifrons (Jardine & Selby 1828)BKB15, WS48 (see below for synonymy)
          |     |             `--E. aurifrons Gould 1838BKB15, WS48 [incl. E. aurifrons flavescens Mathews 1912WS48]
          |     `--+--+--Melilestes megarhynchusBKB15
          |        |  `--TimeliopsisJT12
          |        |       |--T. fulvigulaJT12
          |        |       `--T. griseigulaJT12
          |        `--+--Macgregoria De Vis 1897 non Muell. 1874 (ICBN)BKB15, B94 [Macgregoriinae]
          |           |    `--M. pulchraJT12
          |           `--MelipotesANM14
          |                |--M. aterJT12
          |                |--M. fumigatusJT12
          |                `--M. gymnopsJT12
          `--+--+--PhilemonANM14
             |  `--+--+--Grantiella pictaJT12
             |     |  `--Plectorhyncha lanceolataJT12
             |     `--XanthotisJT12
             |          |--X. flaviventerJT12
             |          |--X. macleayanusJT12
             |          `--X. polygrammusJT12
             `--+--Cissomela pectoralisANM14 [=Certhionyx pectoralisJT12]
                `--+--LichmeraJT12
                   `--+--Trichodere cockerelliJT12
                      `--PhylidonyrisJT12
Meliphagidae incertae sedis:
  Lacustroica whitei North 1910 [incl. L. whitei neglecta Mathews 1916]WS48
  Leptomyza [incl. Leptornis]S13
    `--L. aubryana [=Leptornis aubryanus]S13
  MeliornisWS48
    |--M. niger (Bechstein 1811) (see below for synonymy)WS48
    `--M. novaehollandiae (Latham 1790) (see below for synonymy)WS48
  Myzantha flavigula Gould 1839 (see below for synonymy)WS48
  Oreornis chrysogenysJT12
  MyzaJT12
    |--M. celebensisJT12
    `--M. sarasinorumJT12
  Melitograis gilolensisJT12

Acanthagenys rufogularis Gould 1838BKB15, WS48 [incl. A. flavacanthus Campbell 1899WS48, A. rufogularis wei Mathews 1912WS48, A. rufogularis woolundra Mathews 1920WS48]

Anthornis melanocephala Gray in Dieffenbach 1843 [=A. melanura melanocephala; incl. A. auriocula Buller 1865]CC10

Anthornis melanura melanura (Sparrman 1786) [incl. Philedon dumerilii Lesson & Garnot in Duperrey 1828, A. melanura dumerilii, A. incoronata Bangs 1911, A. melanura incoronata, Certhia olivacea Forster in Lichtenstein 1844, A. ruficeps Pelzeln 1867, C. sannio Gmelin 1788, Philedon sannio]CC10

Certhionyx variegatus Lesson 1830BKB15, WS48 [incl. C. occidentalis Ogilvie-Grant 1909WS48, Melicophila picata Gould 1844WS48]

Entomyzon cyanotis (Latham 1801)JT12, WS48 [=Gracula cyanotisWS48; incl. E. cyanotis subalbipennis Mathews 1912WS48]

Epthianura albifrons (Jardine & Selby 1828)BKB15, WS48 [=Acanthiza albifronsWS48; incl. E. albifrons westralensis Mathews 1912WS48]

Meliornis niger (Bechstein 1811) [=Certhia nigra; incl. Meliornis nigra dulciei Mathews 1911, Meliornis nigra inexpectata Mathews 1912, Meliphaga mystacalis Gould 1840]WS48

Meliornis novaehollandiae (Latham 1790) [=Certhia novaehollandiae; incl. Meliornis novaehollandiae intermedius Mathews 1923, Meliphaga longriostris Gould 1846]WS48

Myzantha flavigula Gould 1839 [incl. M. flavigula casuarina Mathews 1912, M. flavigula clelandi Mathews 1912, M. lutea Gould 1839, M. obscura Gould 1840, M. obscura ortoni Ashby 1922, M. flavigula wayensis Mathews 1912]WS48

Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae (Gmelin 1788) [=Merops novaeseelandae, Lamprotornis novaezealandiae, Meliphaga novaezealandiae, Prosthemadera novaezealandiae]CC10

Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae novaeseelandiae [incl. Certhia cincinnata Forster in Lichtenstein 1844, Merops cincinnatus Latham 1790, Philemon cincinnatus, *Prosthemadera cincinnata, Pr. circinata Reichenbach 1852, Melliphaga circinata, Pr. concinnata Gray 1840, Sturnus crispicollis Daudin 1800, Pr. novaeseelandiae kermadecensis Mathews & Iredale 1914, Pr. novaeseelandiae kwini Kemp 1912, Meliphaga novaehollandiae Stephens in Shaw 1826, Pr. novaeseelandiae phoebe Kemp 1912]CC10

Purnella albifrons (Gould 1840)ANM14, WS48 [=Gliciphila albifronsWS48, Glyciphila albifronsWS48, Phylidonyris albifronsANM14; incl. Gli. albifrons lavertoni Mathews 1924WS48]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[ANM14] Andersen, M. J., A. Naikatani & R. G. Moyle. 2014. A molecular phylogeny of Pacific honeyeaters (Aves: Meliphagidae) reveals extensive paraphyly and an isolated Polynesian radiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 71: 308–315.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[M03] Morcombe, M. 2003. Field Guide to Australian Birds 2nd ed. Steve Parish Publishing.

[S13] Sarasin, F. 1913. Die Vögel Neu-Caledoniens und der Loyalty-Inseln. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 1 pp. 1–78, pls 1–3. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[WS48] Whittell, H. M., & D. L. Serventy. 1948. A systematic list of the birds of Western Australia. Public Library, Museum and Art Gallery of Western Australia, Special Publication 1: 1–126.

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