Memsembryanthemoideae

Hottentot fig Carpobrotus edulis, copyright kqedquest.

Belongs within: Aizoaceae.
Contains: Conophytum, Lithops, Ruschia.

The Mesembryanthemoideae, iceplants or ice-daisies, are a group of flowering plants bearing flowers with many petals in several whorls. Placentas are parietal in members of the tribes Apatesieae, Carpobroteae and Ruschieae but axile in Mesembryanthemum and its immediate relatives (Hickman 1993).

<==Mesembryanthemoideae [Aptenioideae, Mesembryanthemaceae, Ruschioideae]
    |--Conicosia Br. 1925H93, PV84 [ApatesieaeH93]
    |    |--*C. pugioniformis (L.) Br. 1925PV84 [=Mesembryanthemum pugioniformeH93]
    |    `--C. bijlii Br. 1931PV84
    |--Carpobrotus Br. 1925PV84 [CarpobroteaeH93]
    |    |--*C. edulis (L.) Bolus 1927 [=Mesembryanthemum edule L. 1759]PV84
    |    |--C. acinaciformisJ54
    |    |--C. aequilaterus (Haw.) Br. 1928 (see below for synonymy)PV84
    |    |--C. candidusKM08
    |    |--C. chilensis [=Mesembryanthemum chilense; incl. C. mellei]H93
    |    |--C. glaucescens (Haw.) Schwantes 1928 [=Mesembryanthemum glaucescens Haw. 1812]PV84
    |    |--C. modestus Blake 1969PV84
    |    |--C. rossii (Haw.) Schwantes 1928 [=Mesembryanthemum rossii Haw. 1821]PV84
    |    `--C. virescens (Haw.) Schwantes 1928 (see below for synonymy)PV84
    |--+--Aptenia Br. 1925H93, PV84
    |  |    `--*A. cordifolia (L.f.) Schwantes 1928 [=Mesembryanthemum cordifolium L.f. 1782]PV84
    |  `--Mesembryanthemum L. 1753H93, PV84 [=Mesembrianthemum (l. c.)PV84]
    |       |--*M. crystallinum L. 1753 (see below for synonymy)PV84
    |       |--M. aitonis Jacq. 1776 [=Cryophytum aitonis (Jacq.) Br. 1928, Gasoul aitonis (Jacq.) Eichler 1965]PV84
    |       |--M. noctiflorumD00
    |       |--M. nodiflorum L. 1753 [=Cryophytum nodiflorum (L.) Bolus 1927, Gasoul nodiflorum (L.) Rothm. 1941]PV84
    |       |--M. pellitumCV06
    |       |--M. sarmentosum Haw. 1812 (n. d.)PV84
    |       |--M. splendensD00
    |       `--M. tenuifoliumD00
    `--RuschieaeH93
         |--RuschiaPV84
         |--MalephoraH93
         |    |--M. crocea [=Mesembryanthemum croceum]H93
         |    `--M. englerianaCV06
         |--DelospermaH93
         |    |--D. abyssinicumB06b
         |    |--D. echinatumJ54
         |    |--D. klinghardtianumCV06
         |    `--D. litorale [=Mesembryanthemum litorale]H93
         `--Drosanthemum Schwantes 1927H93, PV84
              |--*D. hispidum (L.) Schwantes 1927PV84
              |--D. candens (Haw.) Schwates 1927 [=Mesembryanthemum candens Haw. 1821]PV84
              |--D. floribundum [=Mesembryanthemum floribundum]H93
              |--D. nordenstamiiCV06
              `--D. pauperCV06
Mesembryanthemoideae incertae sedis:
  Acrodon purpureostylusB06a
  Synaptophyllum juttaeCV06
  Jensenobotrya lossowianaCV06
  Ruschianthus falcatusCV06
  StoeberiaCV06
  Astridia halliCV06
  Cheiridopsis caroli-schmidtiiCV06
  Dracophilus delaetinusCV06
  Eberlanzia clausaCV06
  FenestrariaCV06
    |--F. aurantiacaJ54
    `--F. rhopalophyllaCV06
  TitanopsisCV06
    |--T. calcareaJ54
    `--T. schwantesiiCV06
  Trichodiadema littlewoodiiCV06
  AmphiboliaB06a
    |--A. laevis [incl. A. hutchinsonii (preoc.)]B06a
    `--A. saginataCV06
  NamibiaCV06
    |--N. cinerea [incl. N. ponderosa]CV06
    `--N. pomonaeCV06
  SchwantesiaCV06
    |--S. constanceaeCV06
    `--S. succumbensCV06
  CephalophyllumCV06
    |--C. compressumCV06
    `--C. confusumCV06
  Dinteranthus microspermusCV06
    |--D. m. ssp. microspermusCV06
    `--D. m. ssp. impunctatusCV06
  EbracteolaCV06
    |--E. derenbergianaCV06
    `--E. montis-moltkeiCV06
  PsammophoraCV06
    |--P. nisseniiCV06
    `--P. saxicolaCV06
  Psilocaulon Br. 1925CV06, PV84
    |--*P. articulatum (Thunb.) Br. 1925PV84
    |--P. gessertianumCV06
    |--P. salicornioidesCV06
    `--P. tenue (Haw.) Schwantes 1928 [=Mesembryanthemum tenue Haw. 1821]PV84
  BrownanthusCV06
    |--B. arenosusCV06
    |--B. namibensisCV06
    `--B. pubescensCV06
  JuttadinteriaCV06
    |--J. attenuataCV06
    |--J. ausensisCV06
    |--J. deserticolaCV06
    `--J. simpsoniiCV06
  AntimimaB06a
    |--A. argenteaCV06
    |--A. aurasensisCV06
    |--A. buchubergensisCV06
    |--A. dolomiticaCV06
    |--A. eendornensisCV06
    |--A. modestaCV06
    `--A. quarziticaCV06
  ConophytumCV06
  LithopsCV06
  Disphyma Brown 1925H90, A61
    `--*D. crassifolium (L.) Bolus 1927 [=Mesembryanthemum crassifolium L. 1753]PV84
         |--D. c. ssp. crassifoliumH90
         `--D. c. ssp. clavellatumH90 (see below for synonymy)
  Micropterum Schwantes 1928H90, PV84
    |--*M. schlechteri Schwantes 1928PV84
    `--M. papulosum (L.f.) Schwantes 1938 [=Mesembryanthemum papulosum L.f. 1782]PV84
  Lampranthus Br. 1930H90, PV84
    |--*L. tenuifoliusPV84
    |--L. glaucus (L.) Br. 1930 [=Mesembryanthemum glaucum L. 1753]PV84
    |--L. multiradiatus (Jacq.) Br. 1930 [=Mesembryanthemum multiradiatum Jacq. 1801]PV84
    |--L. spectabilisMH98
    `--L. tegens (Muell.) Br. 1930 [=Mesembryanthemum tegens Muell. 1866; incl. L. caespitosus]PV84
  Sarcozona Black 1934H90, PV84
    |--S. praecox (Muell.) Blake ex Eichler 1965 (see below for synonymy)PV84
    `--S. bicarinata Blake 1969PV84

Carpobrotus aequilaterus (Haw.) Br. 1928 [=Mesembryanthemum equilaterale Haw. 1794, M. edule var. aequilaterum (Haw.) Moss 1914, M. aequilaterale Willd. 1799 (nom. illeg.), Carpobrotus aequilateralis (Willd.) Black 1932; incl. M. aequilaterale var. decagynum Haw. ex DC. 1828 (nom. illeg.), C. disparilis Br. 1928]PV84

Carpobrotus virescens (Haw.) Schwantes 1928 [=Mesembryanthemum virescens Haw. 1812, M. edule var. virescens (Haw.) Moss 1914; incl. M. abbreviatum Haw. 1826]PV84

Disphyma crassifolium ssp. clavellatumH90 [=Mesembryanthemum clavellatum Haw. 1803PV84, D. clavellatum (Haw.) Chinnock 1976PV84; incl. M. australe Ait. 1789H90, PV84, D. australe (Ait.) Br. 1930PV84, D. blackii Chinnock 1971H90, PV84]

*Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. 1753 [=Cryophytum crystallinum (L.) Br. in Phillips 1926, Gasoul crystallinum (L.) Rothm. 1941]PV84

Sarcozona praecox (Muell.) Blake ex Eichler 1965 [=Mesembryanthemum praecox Muell. 1853; incl. Carpobrotus pulleinei Black 1932, *Sarcozona pulleinei (Black) Black 1934]PV84

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B06a] Burgoyne, P. M. 2006a. Mesembryanthemaceae. The identity of Ruschia promontorii. Bothalia 36 (2): 163–167.

[B06b] Burgoyne, P. M. 2006b. Review: Plants of the Simen. A flora of the Simen Mountains and surroundings, northern Ethiopia. Bothalia 36 (2): 253.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[D00] Decandolle, C. 1800. Expériences relatives à l’influence de la lumière sur quelques végétaux. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 2 (42): 138–139.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J54] Jacobsen, H. 1954. Handbuch der sukkulenten Pflanzen: Beschreibung und Kultur der Sukkulenten mit Ausnahme der Cactaceae vol. 1. Abromeitiella bis Euphorbia. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Jena.

[KM08] Keighery, G. J., & W. Muir. 2008. Vegetation and vascular flora of Faure Island, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 75: 11–19.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[PV84] Prescott, A., & J. Venning. 1984. Aizoaceae. In: George, A. S. (ed.) Flora of Australia vol. 4. Phytolaccaceae to Chenopodiaceae pp. 19–62. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

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