Pitar (Pitarina) citrina, from here.

Belongs within: Veneridae.
Contains: Pitar (Pitarina).

Pitar is a genus of venerid bivalves found worldwide, first recorded from the Eocene (Cox et al. 1969).

Lioconcha is a genus of venerid bivalves found in the tropical Pacific and East Indies, with a fossil record dating to the Pliocene. It is divided between two subgenera, Lioconcha (Lioconcha) with a smooth shell surface with zigzag streaks or spots, and Sulcilioconcha with concentric ribs (Cox et al. 1969).

<==Meretricinae [Meretriciana, Meretricidae, Pitaridae, Pitarinae]M27
    |--Megapitaria aurantiaca (Sowerby 1831)BRW98, PP78
    |--Transennella gerrardi Abbott 1958BRW98, B59
    |--Finlaya Marwick 1927M27
    |    `--*F. parthiana Marwick 1927M27
    |--Fossacallista Marwick 1938DK08
    |    `--F. tatei (Cossmann 1920) (see below for synonymy)DK08
    |--Paradione Dall 1909 [incl. Chionella]M27
    |    `--*P. ovalina [=Cytherea ovalina]M27
    |--Aphrodina Conrad 1869S98
    |    `--*A. tippana (Conrad 1858) [=Meretrix tippana]S98
    |--Amiantis Carpenter 1864BRW98, C64
    |    `--*A. callosa (Conr. 1837) (see below for synonymy)C64
    |    |--T. arguta [=Cytherea (Tivela) arguta]C64
    |    `--T. stultorumBRW98
    |--Macrocallista Meek 1876M27
    |    |--M. maculataAJ68
    |    |--M. nimbosa [=Venus nimbosa; incl. V. gigantea, *Macrocallista gigantea]M27
    |    `--M. disrupta (Sowerby 1883) [=Cytherea disrupta]H09
    |--Callistina Jukes-Browne 1908M27, S98
    |    |--*C. (Callistina) planaM27
    |    `--C. (Tikia Marwick 1927)M27
    |         |--C. (*T.) thomsoni (Woods 1917)M27 [=Callista (Callistina) thomsoniM27, Aphrodina (*T.) thomsoniS98]
    |         `--C. (T.) wilckensi (Woods 1917)M27 [=Callista (Callistina) wilckensiM27, Aphrodina (T.) wilckensiS98]
    |--Notocallista Iredale 1924M27 [incl. Striacallista Marwick 1938P61]
    |    |--*N. kingiM27 [=Cytherea kingiM27, Callista kingiF27, Paradione (*Notocallista) kingiM27]
    |    |--N. disruptaBRW98
    |    |--N. multistriata (Sowerby 1851)M27 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--N. parki (Marwick 1927) [=Paradione (Notocallista) parki]M27
    |    `--N. trigonalis (Marwick 1927) [=Paradione (Notocallista) trigonalis]M27
    |    |--S. aratus Gould 1861C64
    |    |--S. brevisiphonatus Carpenter 1864C64
    |    |--S. giganteus Deshayes 1839R78 [=Venerupis giganteaC64]
    |    |--S. nuttallii [=Venerupis nuttalli; incl. Venus maxima, Lutraria traskei Conrad 1855]C64
    |    |--S. petitiiC64
    |    |--S. purpurataXZ10
    |    `--S. squalidusC64
    |    |--M. californiana Conrad 1855C64
    |    |--M. dariena Conrad 1855C64
    |    |--M. decisa Conrad 1855C64
    |    |--M. labiosa [=Venus (Meretrix) labiosa]G20
    |    |--M. meretrixKC11
    |    |--M. petechialis (Lamarck 1810)XZ10
    |    |--M. poulsoniC64
    |    |--M. tularena Conrad 1855 [=M. tularana]C64
    |    |--M. uniomeris Conrad 1855C64
    |    `--M. uvasana Conrad 1855C64
    |    |  i. s.: P. nipponica Kuroda & Habe 1971LS96
    |    |         P. subpellucidusLS96
    |    |--P. (Pitar)PP78
    |    |    |--*P. (P.) tumens [=Venus tumens]M27
    |    |    `--P. (P.) helenae Olsson 1961PP78
    |    |--P. (Costellipitar) porrecta (Roemer 1867)S-S90
    |    |--P. (Hyphantosoma)LS96
    |    |    |--P. (H.) intricata (Dautzenberg 1907) [=Meretrix (Pitar) intricata]LS96
    |    |    `--P. (H.) sculpturatus (Marshall 1918) [=Macrocallista sculpturata]M27
    |    |--P. (Lamelliconcha) frizzelli Hertlein & Strong 1948PP78
    |    `--P. (Pitarina)LS96
         |  i. s.: L. dautzenbergiLS96
         |         L. fastigiata (Sowerby 1851) [=Cytherea fastigiata]H09
         |         L. hieroglyphicaC64
         |         L. tigrina (Lamarck 1816)BW09
         |--L. (Lioconcha)LS96
         |    |--L. (L.) annettae Lamprell & Whitehead 1990LS96
         |    |--L. (L.) castrensis (Linnaeus 1758) (see below for synonymy)LS96
         |    |--L. (L.) ornata (Dillwyn 1817) [=Venus ornata; incl. Cytherea picta Lamarck 1818]LS96
         |    `--L. (L.) polita (Röding 1798) [=Venus polita; incl. Cytherea sulcatina Lamarck 1818]LS96
         `--L. (Sulcilioconcha)LS96
              |--L. (S.) melharteae Lamprell & Stanisic 1996LS96
              |--L. (S.) philippinarum (Hanley 1844) [=Cytherea philippinarum]LS96
              `--L. (S.) richerdeforgesi Lamprell & Stanisic 1996LS96

*Amiantis callosa (Conr. 1837) [=Callista callosa, Cytherea callosa; incl. Dione nobilis Rve. 1849, Callista nobilis, Cytherea nobilis]C64

Fossacallista tatei (Cossmann 1920) [=Cytherea tatei, Notocallista (Fossacallista) tatei, C. tenuis Tate 1886 non Hall & Meek 1854]DK08

Lioconcha (Lioconcha) castrensis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Venus castrensis; incl. Cytherea ornata Lamarck 1818 non Dillwyn 1817]LS96

Notocallista multistriata (Sowerby 1851)M27 [=Cytherea (Callista) multistriataM27, Macrocallista multistriataM27, Notocallista (*Striacallista) multistriataP61, Paradione (Notocallista) multistriataM27]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B59] Baker, B. B. 1959. Publications received: The marine mollusks of Grand Cayman Island, British West Indies. By R. Tucker Abbott. Nautilus 72 (4): 147–148.

[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[BW09] Bryce, C. & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KC11] Kocot, K. M., J. T. Cannon, C. Todt, M. R. Citarella, A. B. Kohn, A. Meyer, S. R. Santos, C. Schander, L. L. Moroz, B. Lieb & K. M. Halanych. 2011. Phylogenomics reveals deep molluscan relationships. Nature 477: 452–456.

[LS96] Lamprell, K. L., & J. Stanisic. 1996. Callista, Lioconcha and Pitar in New Caledonia and adjacent waters (Mollusca, Veneridae). Molluscan Research 17: 27–48.

[M27] Marwick, J. 1927. The Veneridae of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 567–636.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[R78] Reid, R. G. B. 1978. The systematic, adaptive and physiological significance of proteolytic enzyme distribution in bivalves. Veliger 20 (3): 260–265.

[S-S90] Slack-Smith, S. M. 1990. The bivalves of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 129–157. Western Australian Museum.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[XZ10] Xu, F., & J. Zhang. 2010. Study on the bivalve faunal composition of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 7–12. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

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