Sejus togatus, dorsal (left) and ventral views, copyright Edenis.

Belongs within: Parasitiformes.
Contains: Trigynaspida, Uropodina, Gamasina.

The Mesostigmata are a taxonomically and ecologically diverse group of mites in which the venter of the subcapitulum bears a pair of corniculi together with at most four pairs of setae, and the bases of the chelicerae are surrounded by a sclerotised ring that usually projects above into an epistome. Major subgroups of the Mesostigmata include the Sejoidea, a group of densely setose mites with fragmented dorsal and ventral plates. The oviporus in females is covered by a single large plate, usually bearing six or more setae (rarely two to four). The greater number of species of Sejoidea are included in the family Sejidae, females of which have a distinct pygidial shield that often bears a pair of posterior horn-like processes (Lindquist et al. 2009).

The greater number of mesostigmatan species are encompassed by the Monogynaspida, characterised by the loss of the av4 and pv4 on tarsus IV and females having the oviporus usually covered by a single shield lacking setae or with a single pair of setae st5 (Lindquist et al. 2009).

<==Mesostigmata [Gamasida, Gamasini, Gamasoidea, Monogynaspides, Trichopygidiina]
    |--Sejoidea [Liroaspina, Sejida, Sejina]L91
    |    |--Uropodella Berlese 1888FH93 [UropodellidaeLKW09]
    |    |    |--U. laciniata Berlese 1888 [incl. U. camini Hirschmann & Zierngiebl-Nicol 1984]FH93
    |    |    `--U. krantzi Hirschmann & Zirngiebl-Nicol 1984FH93
    |    |--IchthyostomatogasteridaeLKW09
    |    |    |--JapanoasternolaelapsLKW09
    |    |    |--Archaeopodella Athias-Henriot 1977LKW09, H98
    |    |    |    `--A. scopulifera Athias-Henriot 1977H98
    |    |    `--Asternolaelaps Berlese 1923H98 [incl. Ichthyostomatogaster Sellnick 1953FH93]
    |    |         |  i. s.: A. australis Womersley & Domrow 1959H98
    |    |         |--*A. (Asternolaelaps) fecundus Berlese 1923ET79 [incl. Ichthyostomatogaster nyhleni Sellnick 1953FH93]
    |    |         `--A. (Parasternolaelaps Athias-Henriot 1972)LKW09
    |    |              `--A. (*P.) castriiLKW09
    |    `--Sejidae [Liroaspidae, Liroaspoidea, Seiidae]LKW09
    |         |--Epicroseius Berlese 1905FH93
    |         |--Adenosejus krantziLKW09
    |         |--AfricasejusLKW09
    |         |--ZuluacarusLKW09
    |         |--Liroaspis Banks 1902H98
    |         |    |--*L. americana Banks 1902E57, FH93 [=Sejus americanusFH93]
    |         |    `--L. acanthurus (Canestrini 1884) [=Sejus acanthurus, Seius acanthurus, Zercon acanthurus]H98
    |         `--Sejus Koch 1836H98 [incl. Dwigubskyia Oudemans 1936FH93, Willmannia Balogh 1938FH93]
    |              |--*S. togatus Koch 1836ET79 [=Liroaspis togatusS61]
    |              |--S. aciculatus Evans & Hyatt 1960FH93
    |              |--S. armatus (Fox 1947) (see below for synonymy)FH93
    |              |--S. baloghiLKW09
    |              |--S. borealis (Berlese 1904)K91
    |              |--S. insulanus Trägårdh 1931T31
    |              |--‘Seius’ italicus Berlese 1916H98
    |              |--S. necorniger (Oudemans 1903)K91
    |              |--S. paricornis Berlese 1916H98
    |              |--S. porosus (Domrow 1957) [=Epicroseius porosus]H98
    |              |--S. sanborni Packard 1888FH93
    |              |--S. serratus (Halbert 1915)K91 [=*Microcheles serratusS58, Zercon serratusS58]
    |              `--‘Willmannia’ sejiformisQA91
            |--Heatherella Walter 1997H98 [Heatherellidae, HeatherellinaLKW09, Heatherelloidea]
            |    |--*H. acanthocharis Walter 1997W97
            |    `--H. callimaulos Walter 1997H98
            |--Microgynioidea [Microgyniina]LKW09
            |    |--Nothogynus Walter & Krantz 1999 [Nothogynidae]WK99
            |    |    |--*N. klompeni Walter & Krantz 1999WK99
            |    |    `--N. camini Walter & Krantz 1999WK99
            |    `--MicrogyniidaeLKW09
            |         |--Microgynium Trägåardh 1942FH93
            |         |    |--M. incisum Krantz 1961FH93
            |         |    `--M. rectangulatumWK99
            |         `--Microsejus Traegardh 1942ET79
            |              `--*M. truncicola Traegardh 1942ET79
            `--Heterozerconoidea [Heterozerconina]LKW09
                 |    |--Discomegistus Trägårdh 1911FH93
                 |    |    `--*D. pectinatus Trägårdh 1911FH93
                 |    `--Discozercon Berlese 1910FH93
                 |         |--*D. mirabilis Berlese 1910V25
                 |         `--D. derricki Domrow 1956H98
                      |--Afroheterozercon ancoratusLKW09
                      |--Amheterozercon amphisbaenae [=Zeterohercon amphisbaenae]LKW09
                      |--Narceoheterozercon ohioensisLKW09
                      |--Allozercon Vitzthum 1924V25
                      |    `--*A. fecundissimus Vitzthum 1924V25
                      `--Heterozercon Berlese 1888FH93
                           |--*H. degeneratus Berlese 1888V25
                           |--H. audax Berlese 1910 [incl. H. elapsus Vitzthum 1924]V25
                           |--H. cautus Berlese 1923V25
                           `--H. latusLKW09
Mesostigmata incertae sedis:
  Streptolaelaps heteromys Furman 1955QV01
  Tricholaelaps myonysognathus Grochovskaya & Mguen-Xuan-Hoe 1961MZ91
  Spelaeorhynchus Neumann 1902FA67 [SpelaeorhynchidaeLKW09]
    |--*S. praecursor Neumann 1902 [incl. S. latus Banks 1917]FA67
    |--S. chilonycteris Fain, Anastos et al. 1967FA67
    `--S. monophylli Fain, Anastos et al. 1967FA67
  ‘Nicoletia’ Canestrini & Fanzago 1877 non Gervais 1842CF77
    `--*N. cornuta Canestrini & Fanzago 1877CF77
    |--T. cadaverinusS22
    `--T. troguloides [incl. T. elongatus]CF77
  Toxopeusia Oudemans 1927 [Toxopeusiidae]O28
    |--T. strandi Oudemans 1927O28
    `--T. vitzthumi Oudemans 1927O28
  Neoberlesia equitansAL37

Sejus armatus (Fox 1947) non Gamasus armatus Koch 1879 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.) [=Liroaspis armatus]FH93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AL37] André, M., & É. Lamy. 1937. Les Idées actuelles sur la Phylogénie des Acariens. Published by the author: Paris.

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[E57] Evans, G. O. 1957. An introduction to the British Mesostigmata (Acarina) with keys to families and genera. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 43: 203–259.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FA67] Fain, A., G. Anastos, J. Camin & D. Johnston. 1967. Notes on the genus Spelaeorhynchus description of S. praecursor Neumann and of two new species. Acarologia 9 (3): 535–556.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[K91] Koehler, H. H. 1991. A five year study on the secondary succession of Gamasina on a ruderal site: the influence of recultivation. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 373–383. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[L91] Lehtinen, P. T. 1991. Phylogeny and zoogeography of the Holothyrida. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 101–113. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W. & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed., pp. 124-232. Texas Tech University Press.

[MZ91] Meng Y.-C., Zhuge H.-X., Lan M.-Y. & Zhou H.-F. 1991. Experimental study on transmission of haemorrhagic fever with remal syndrome virus by mites, Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 35–39. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[O28] Oudemans, A. C. 1928. Fauna Buruana. Acari. Treubia 7 (Suppl. 2): 37–100.

[QA91] Quintero, M. T., & H. A. Acevedo. 1991. Studies on deep litter mites on farms in Mexico. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 443–448. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[QV01] Quintero, M. M. T., M. Vargas, B. S. Hernández, P García & N. J. Otero. 2001. Ectoparasitic mites on Heteromys gaumeri in the south of Yucatan, Mexico. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 583–585. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

[S58] Sellnick, M. 1958. Die familie Zerconidae Berlese. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 3: 313–368.

[T31] Trägårdh, I. 1931. Acarina from the Juan Fernandez Islands. Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Islands 3 (4): 553–628.

[V25] Vitzthum, H. 1925. Fauna sumatrensis. (Beitrag no. 5). Acarinae. Supplementa Entomologica 11: 1–79.

[W97] Walter, D. E. 1997. Heatherellidae—a new family of Mesostigmata (Acari: Parasitiformes) based on two new species from rainforest litter in Australia. International Journal of Acarology 23 (3): 167–175.

[WK99] Walter, D. E., & G. W. Krantz. 1999. New early derivative mesostigmatans from Australia: Nothogynus n. g., Nothogynidae n. fam. (Mesostigmata: Microgyniina). International Journal of Acarology 25: 67–76.

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