Clathria reinwardti, copyright Nick Hobgood.

Belongs within: Poecilosclerida.

The Microcionidae are a group of demosponges found predominantly in shallow waters, with the skeleton usually differentiated between distinct choanosomal, subectosomal and ectosomal regions (Hooper 2002).

Characters (from Hooper 2002): Skeleton with terminally spined ectosomal styles, rarely modified to quasidiactinal or diactinal forms; three skeletal regions defined by presence of different forms of structural styles: choanosomal (axial) skeleton (with spongin fibres enveloping principal styles echinatcd by acanthose or smooth styles; sometimes replaced by a basal or axial renieroid skeleton of smooth or acanthose styles or strongyles, with or without echinating spicules); subectosomal (extra-axial or extra-fibre) skeleton (with individual or tracts of auxiliary styles ascending to surface); and ectosomal skeleton (with smaller auxiliary styles forming a surface crust tangential, paratangential or perpendicular to surface); one or more skeletal regions may be lost or modified. Megascleres predominantly smooth styles, may be modified and/or supplemented by quasidiactinal or diactinal forms, or lost completely and replaced with detritus. Microscleres including palmate isochelae and diverse forms of toxas.

    |--Echinochalina (Echinochalina) intermedia (Whitelegge 1902)FV09
    |--Echinoclathria leporina (Lamarck 1814)MG-H11
    |--Ophlitaspongia seriata Grant 1865MC15, F79
    |--Antho Gray 1867BJ06
    |    `--A. (Acarnia Gray 1867) [incl. Plocamia Schmidt 1870]BJ06
    |         `--A. (A.) ridleyi (Hentschel 1912)FS14 [=Plocamia ridleyiBJ06]
    |--Holopsamma Carter 1885MG-H11, LT64
    |    |--*H. laevis Carter 1885LT64
    |    |--H. arborea (Lendenfeld 1888)MG-H11
    |    `--H. turbo Carter 1885 [=Sigmatella turbo]T72
    `--Clathria Schmidt 1862BJ06
         |  i. s.: C. claviformis Hentschel 1912BJ06
         |         C. dubia (Kirkpatrick 1900)JG19
         |         C. frondiferaBJ06
         |           |--C. f. frondiferaBJ06
         |           |--C. f. dichela Hentschel 1912BJ06
         |           `--C. f. major Hentschel 1912BJ06
         |         C. inancorataK96
         |         C. mixta Hentschel 1912BJ06
         |         C. nuda Hentschel 1912BJ06
         |         C. spiculosaBJ06
         |           |--C. s. spiculosaBJ06
         |           `--C. s. macilenta Hentschel 1912BJ06
         |         C. typicaBJ06
         |           |--C. t. typicaBJ06
         |           `--C. t. porrecta Hentschel 1912BJ06
         |--C. (Isociella) selachia Hooper 1996MG-H11
         |--C. (Microciona)FV09
         |    |--C. (M.) aceratoobtusa (Carter 1887)FV09
         |    `--‘Microciona’ proliferaC-SC03
         `--C. (Thalysias Duchassaing & Michelotti 1864) [incl. Rhaphidophlus Ehlers 1870]BJ06
              |--C. (T.) abietina (Lamarck 1814)MG-H11
              |--C. (T.) cactiformis (Lamarck 1814)FS14
              |--C. (T.) cervicornis (Thiele 1903)FV09 [=Rhaphidophlus cervicornisBJ06]
              |--C. (T.) coppingeri Ridley 1884Fs14
              |    |--C. c. coppingeriBJ06
              |    `--C. c. aculeata Hentschel 1912BJ06
              |--‘Rhaphidophlus’ coralliophilus Thiele 1903BJ06
              |--C. (T.) juniperina (Lamarck 1814)MG-H11
              |--C. (T.) lendenfeldii Ridley & Dendy 1886FS14
              |--C. (T.) procera (Ridley 1884)MG-H11
              |--C. (T.) reinwardti Vosmaer 1880FS14
              |--C. (T.) tingens Hooper 1996FS14
              `--C. (T.) toxifera (Hentschel 1912)FS14

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BJ06] Barnich, R., & D. Janussen. 2006. Die Typen und Typoide des Naturmuseums Senckenberg, Nr. 86. Type catalogue of the Porifera in the collections of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 127–144.

[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and other Protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 540–563.

[FS14] Fromont, J., & A. Sampey. 2014. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: sponges (Porifera). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 69–100.

[FV09] Fromont, J., & M. A. Vanderklift. 2009. Porifera (sponges) of Mermaid, Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 89–103.

[F79] Fry, W. G. 1979. Taxonomy, the individual and the sponge. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 49–80. Academic Press: London.

Hooper, J. N. A. 2002. Family Microcionidae Carter, 1875. In: Hooper, J. N. A., & R. W. M. Van Soest (eds) Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges pp. 432–468. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[K96] Kieschnick, O. 1896. Silicispongiae von Ternate nach den Sammlungen von Herrn Prof. Dr. W. Kükenthal. Zoologischer Anzeiger 19: 526–534.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[MC15] Morrow, C., & P. Cárdenas. 2015. Proposal for a revised classification of the Demospongiae (Porifera). Frontiers in Zoology 12: 7.

[T72] Tendal, O. S. 1972. A monograph of the Xenophyophoria (Rhizopodea, Protozoa). Galathea Report 12: 7–99.

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