Microtrombidiidae

Subadult and egg of Willungella willungae, from Southcott (1994).

Belongs within: Parasitengonina.
Contains: Enemothrombium, Eutrombidium, Microtrombidium, Platytrombidium, Camerotrombidium, Manriquia.

The Microtrombidiidae are a cosmopolitan group of predatory mites with the palptibia of adults bearing multiple spinose setae alongside the terminal claw, and with larvae parasitic on Diptera. A large plate is present posteriorly on the idionotum in adults of the subfamily Eutrombidiinae but absent in Microtrombidiinae. The subfamilies Milliotrombiinae and Hexathrombiinae are only known from larvae (Walter et al. 2009).

Characters (from Southcott 1994): Adults and deutonymphs of small to moderate size, generally with eyes, if present, sessile. Dorsum of idiosoma with or without pygosomal scutum. Crista with one sensillary area, with two sensillary setae. Anterior end of crista ending in broadened area, generally somewhat sclerotized, usually bearing several setulose setae. Palpal tibia with odontus (‘claw’), paradont (‘accessory claw’), and various thickened spiniform setae (‘spinisetae’), some formed into a ctenidium, or more than one ctenidia. Larva with two or more median dorsal idiosomal scuta; two eyes on each side. Anterior dorsal scutum with pair of sensillary setae. Anterior dorsal scutum covering anterior part of idiosoma, may be deflexed; its two anteriormost scutal setae (AM scutalae) widely separated. Leg segmental pattern 6, 6, 6. Coxal setal pattern 2, 2, 1 or 2, 1, 1. Tarsal claws may be reduced, those of tarsus III may be modified (‘deformed’) for jumping (saltatory modification).

<==Microtrombidiidae [Eutrombidiidae]
    |--MilliotrombiinaeWL09
    |    |--Kepongia malayensisWL09
    |    `--Milliotrombidium Shiba 1976WL09, S76
    |         `--*M. milliopodum Shiba 1976S76
    |--HexathrombiinaeWL09
    |    |--HexathrombiumWL09
    |    |--Hoplothrombium Ewing 1925WL09, T35
    |    |    `--H. quinquescutatumWL09
    |    `--BeroniumWL09
    |         |--B. coiffatiWL09
    |         `--B. laemostenis Mayoral & Barranco 2005F05
    |--EutrombidiinaeS94
    |    |--Bruyantella smithiWL09
    |    |--Verdunella lockleii (Welbourn & Young 1988)WL09, MF11
    |    |--Spinnitrombium kenyenseWL09
    |    |--EutrombidiumS94
    |    |--Leptothrombium Berlese 1912T35
    |    |    `--L. oblongumWL09
    |    `--Alhamitrombium Mayoral & Barranco 2005F05
    |         `--*A. tetraseta Mayoral & Barranco 2005F05
    `--Microtrombidiinae [Feideriinae, Ottoniinae]MB12
         |--MicrotrombidiumS94
         |--PlatytrombidiumS94
         |--CamerotrombidiumS94
         |--ManriquiaS94
         |--Trichotrombidium Koublej 1950 [incl. Phlogothrombium Feider 1952, Plagothrombium (l. c.)]S94
         |    `--T. hemistriatum (Womersely 1942) (see below for synonymy)S94
         |--Keramotrombium Southcott 1994S94
         |    `--*K. argentanense (Bruyant 1912) [=Metatrombium (l. c. for Metathrombium) argentanense]S94
         |--Shibadania Southcott 1994MB12
         |    `--*S. striata (Shiba 1976) [=Ettmuelleria striata]S94
         |--Workandella Southcott 1994MB12
         |    `--*W. virgata Southcott 1994S94
         |--Cercothrombium Methlagl 1928MB12
         |    `--*C. loricatum Methlagl 1927S94
         |--Crinitrombium Southcott 1994MB12
         |    `--*C. crinitum (Shiba 1976) [=Ettmuelleria crinita]S94
         |--Buandikia Southcott 1994S94
         |    `--*B. anneae Southcott 1994S94
         |--Reticulatrombidium Shiba 1976S94
         |    `--*R. serratum Shiba 1976S94
         |--Lacinitrombium Southcott 1994S94
         |    `--*L. fluminis (Michener 1946) [=Microtrombidium fluminis]S94
         |--Furcotrombium Southcott 1994S94
         |    `--*F. spasiscutum (Robaux 1974) [=Microthrombidium spasiscutum]S94
         |--Atractothromboides Feider 1975S94
         |    `--*A. danubialis Feider 1975S94
         |--Patagonella Southcott 1994S94
         |    `--*P. echeverryae Southcott 1994S94
         |--Thormicrella Southcott 1994S94
         |    `--*T. janeae Southcott 1994S94
         |--Parafeiderium Vercammen-Grandjean & Cochrane 1974S94
         |    `--*P. culicoidium (Vercammen-Grandjean & Cochrane 1974) [=Feiderium (*Parafeiderium) culicoidium]S94
         |--Georgia Hull 1918 [Georgiinae]S94
         |    `--G. pulcherrima (Haller 1882) (see below for synonymy)S94
         |--Nevada Mayoral & Barranco 2012MB12
         |    `--*N. capileirarum Mayoral & Barranco 2012MB12
         |--Feiderella Southcott 1994 [incl. Feiderium Vercammen-Grandjean & Cochrane 1964 (n. n.)]S94
         |    `--F. tarnavensis (Feider 1950) (see below for synonymy)S94
         |--Empitrombium Southcott 1994S94
         |    |--*E. dictyostracum (Vercammen-Grandjean & Cochrane 1974) [=Atractothrombium dictyostracum]S94
         |    `--E. littorale (Michener 1946) [=Microtrombidium littorale]S94
         |--Fissitrombium Southcott 1994S94
         |    |--*F. keasti Southcott 1994S94
         |    `--F. clarki (Womersley 1937) [=Trombidium clarki, Microtrombidium clarki]S94
         |--Dendrotrombidium Thor 1936T36
         |    |--*D. perligerum (Berlese 1888)T36 [=Trombidium perligerumT36, Microtrombidium (Enemothrombium) perligerumG96]
         |    `--D. betschiWL09
         |--Ettmuelleria Oudemans 1911 [=Ettmulleria; incl. Diathrombium Moser & Vercammen-Grandjean 1979]S94
         |    |--*E. ‘sucida’ (Trägårdh 1910) [=Trombidium sucidum non Rhyncholophus sucidus Koch 1879]S94
         |    |--E. diaphane (Moser & Vercammen-Grandjean 1979) [=Diathrombium diaphane]S94
         |    `--E. townsendi Dumbleton 1962SL71
         |--Dromeothrombium Berlese 1912T35
         |    |--D. copiosum Shiba 1976S76
         |    |--D. queenslandiae Womersley 1935H98
         |    `--D. yosii Shiba 1976S76
         |--Gonothrombium Feider 1950 [=Gonotrombidium (l. c.); incl. Pseudoblankaartia Fuller & Wharton 1951]S94
         |    |--*G. bimaculatum (Feider 1950) (see below for synonymy)S94
         |    |--G. bequaerti (Fuller & Wharton 1951) [=*Pseudoblankaartia bequaerti]S94
         |    `--G. oudemansianum (Feider 1948) (see below for synonymy)S94
         |--Robauxia Southcott 1994S94
         |    |--*R. thaumapilosum (Robaux 1974) [=Microthrombidium thaumapilosum]S94
         |    |--R. micheneri Southcott 1994 [=Microtrombidium maculatum Michener 1946 non Womersley 1942]S94
         |    `--R. pistiae (Michener 1946)S94, M46 [=Microtrombidium pistiaeS94]
         |--Holcotrombidium Womersley 1945S94 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--*H. securigerum (Canestrini 1897) [=Ottonia securigera]S94
         |    |--H. cygnus (Womersley 1936) (see below for synonymy)H98
         |    |--H. dentipile (Canestrini 1897)S76 (see below for synonymy)
         |    `--H. sclaris (Womersley 1936)SL71
         |--Foliotrombidium Womersley 1945S94
         |    |--*F. evansi (Womersley 1937) [=Enemothrombium evansi]S94
         |    |--F. bisetosum Womersley 1945H98
         |    |--F. kohlsi Womersley 1945H98
         |    `--F. ornatum Womersley 1945S94
         |--Sucidothrombium Feider 1974S94
         |    `--S. sucidum (Koch 1879)S94 (see below for synonymy)
         |         |--S. s. sucidumSB63
         |         |--‘Microtrombidium’ s. norvegicum Berlese 1910SB63
         |         `--‘Microtrombidium’ s. plurispinum Schweizer 1951SB63
         |--Willmannella Feider 1952S94
         |    |--*W. phyllophora (Canestrini 1897) [=Ottonia phyllophora, Campylothrombium phyllophorum]S94
         |    |--W. franzi (Willmann 1950)S94
         |    |--W. johnstoniWL09
         |    `--W. racovitzai (Feider 1948)S94
         |--Campylothrombium Krausse 1916S94
         |    |--*C. langhofferi (Krausse 1916) [=Microtrombidium (*Campylothrombium) langhofferi]S94
         |    |--C. barbarum (Lucas 1847)S94, E12 [=Trombidium barbarumS94, Camerotrombidium barbarumT36]
         |    |--C. borealeW01
         |    `--C. striaticeps (Oudemans 1904) [=Thrombidium striaticeps]S94
         |--Compsothrombium André 1958S94
         |    |--*C. tegularum André 1958S94
         |    |--C. caudatum (Cooreman 1944) [=Microthrombium (l. c. for Microtrombidium) (Ettmuelleria) caudatum]S94
         |    |--C. diversipile André 1958S94
         |    |--C. johnstoni Robaux 1976S94
         |    `--C. mirabilis André 1958S94
         |--Valgothrombium Willmann 1940SB63
         |    |--*V. valgum (George 1909) [=Ottonia valga]SB63
         |    |--V. alpinumSB63
         |    |    |--V. a. alpinumSB63
         |    |    `--V. a. dubiosum Schweizer 1951SB63
         |    `--V. major (Halbert 1920) [=Microtrombidium pusillum major]SB63
         |--Echinothrombium Womersley 1937 [=Oxithrombium Feider 1950]S94
         |    |--*E. spinosum (Canestrini 1885) [=Ottonia spinosa, Ot. spinosum (l. c.), *Oxithrombium spinosum]S94
         |    |--E. hystricinum (Canestrini 1897) [=Ottonia hystricina, Microtrombidium hystricinum]S76
         |    |--E. rhodinumWL09
         |    |    |--E. r. rhodinumSB63
         |    |    `--E. r. schweizeri André 1950SB63
         |    `--E. tritypum Shiba 1976S76
         |--Ctenerythraeus Berlese 1918 [incl. Spathulathrombium Womersley 1945]S94
         |    |--*C. trombidioides (Berlese 1918) [=Erythraeus (*Ctenerythraeus) trombidioides]S94
         |    |--C. fulgidus (Womersley 1945) [=Spathulathrombium fulgidum]H98
         |    |--C. maximus (Womersley 1945) [=Spathulathrombium maximum]S94
         |    |--C. myloriensis (Womersley 1945) [=Spathulathrombium myloriense]H98
         |    |--C. queenslandiae (Womersley 1942) [=Echinothrombium queenslandiae, Spathulathrombium queenslandiae]H98
         |    `--C. southcotti (Womersley 1934)H98 (see below for synonymy)
         |--Megophthrombium Mullen & Vercammen-Grandjean 1978S94
         |    |--*M. welleslyi Mullen & Vercammen-Grandjean 1978S94
         |    |--M. danbyiS94
         |    |--M. gracile Moser & Vercammen-Grandjean 1979S94
         |    |--M. hindustanicum (Hirst 1926) [=Trombidium hindustanicum]S94
         |    |--M. mccullochi Southcott 1994S94 [=Megophtrombium (l. c.) mccullochiH98]
         |    `--M. punctata (Shiba 1976) [=Ettmuelleria punctata]S94
         |--Atractothrombium Feider 1952S94
         |    |--*A. fusicomum (Berlese 1910) [=Microtrombidium fusicomum, Platytrombidium fusicomum]S94
         |    |    |--A. f. fusicomumS94
         |    |    `--‘Platytrombidium fuscicomum’ baderi Southcott 1994 (see below for synonymy)S94
         |    |--A. pilosellum (Canestrini 1897) [=Ottonia pilosella]S94
         |    |--A. pritchardi (Womersley 1936) [=Microtrombidium pritchardi, Platytrombidium pritchardi]S94
         |    |--A. sylvaticumDPD16
         |    `--A. transsylvanicum Feider 1950S94
         |--Dimorphothrombium Feider 1952 [=Dymorphothrombium (l. c.)]S94
         |    |--*D. italicum (Berlese 1910) (see below for synonymy)S94
         |    |    |--D. i. italicumSB63
         |    |    `--‘Microtrombidium’ i. helveticum Schweizer 1951SB63
         |    |--D. adelaidicum (Womersley 1934)S94 (see below for synonymy)
         |    |--D. diversipile (Canestrini 1897) [=Ottonia diversipilis, Echinothrombium diversipile]S94
         |    |--D. intermediumS94
         |    `--D. westraliense (Womersley 1934) [=Microtrombidium westraliense]S94
         |--Cylindrothrombium Feider 1955S94
         |    |--*C. fasciatum (Koch 1836) (see below for synonymy)S94
         |    |--C. aequale (Banks 1916)S94 [=Trombidium aequalisH98, Microtrombidium aequaleS94, M. aequalisH98]
         |    |--C. africanum (Oudemans 1911) [=Thrombidium africanum]S94
         |    |--C. ferociforme (Trägårdh 1905)S94 [=Trombidium ferociformeSB63, Microtrombidium ferociformeS94]
         |    |--C. spiniferum (Thor 1900) [=Microtrombidium spiniferum]S94
         |    |--C. strandi (Thor 1900) [=Microtrombidium strandi]S94
         |    `--C. sylvaticum (Koch 1835) (see below for synonymy)S94
         `--Willungella Southcott 1994S94
              |--*W. willungae (Hirst 1931) (see below for synonymy)S94
              |--W. australis (Womersley 1936)S94 [=Ettmuelleria australisS94, Microthrombium australisH98]
              |--W. bardonensis (Womersley 1945) [=Echinothrombium bardonense]S94
              |--W. echidnina (Hirst 1931)S94 (see below for synonymy)
              |--W. lamingtonensis (Womersley 1945) [=Echinothrombium lamingtonensis]S94
              |--W. leei Southcott 1994S94
              |--W. obscura (Womersley 1936)S94 [=Ettmuelleria obscuraS94, Microthrombium obscuraH98]
              `--W. spinata (Womersley 1934)S94 (see below for synonymy)
Microtrombidiidae incertae sedis:
  Platyseta Wharton 1938S61
    `--*P. yucatanicus Wharton 1938S61
  Dactylothrombium pulcherrimumDW10
  Hiotrombidium Womersley 1945H98
    |--H. canberraense Womersley 1945H98
    |--H. heaslipi (Womersley 1942) [=Calothrombium heaslipi]H98
    |--H. koordanum (Hirst 1928)H98 [=Microtrombidium (Enemothrombium) koordanumH98, W34, Calothrombium koordanumH98]
    `--H. tubbi (Womersley 1937) [=Calothrombium tubbi, Enemothrombium tubbi]H98
  Laminothrombium Womersley 1937H98
    `--L. myrmicum (Womersley 1934) [=Microtrombidium myrmicum]H98
  Pedotrombidium Womersley 1945H98
    `--P. kohlsi Womersley 1945H98
  Valgoperuvia paradoxaDPD16
  EnemothrombiumG96

Ctenerythraeus southcotti (Womersley 1934)H98 [=Microtrombidium (Enemothrombium) southcottiH98, W34, Echinothrombium southcottiH98]

*Cylindrothrombium fasciatum (Koch 1836) [=Trombidium fasciatum, Microthrombidium fasciatum, Microtrombidium fasciatum; incl. Microtrombidium albofasciatum Berlese 1912, Thrombidium demeijeri Oudemans 1909]S94

Cylindrothrombium sylvaticum (Koch 1835) [=Trombidium sylvaticum, Platytrombidium sylvaticum; incl. Enemothrombium simulans Berlese 1910]S94

Dimorphothrombium adelaidicum (Womersley 1934)S94 [=Microtrombidium (Enemothrombium) adelaidicumS94, D. adelaicum (l. c.)H98; incl. M. tubbi Womersley 1942H98]

*Dimorphothrombium italicum (Berlese 1910) [=Microtrombidium italicum; incl. Trombidium pusillum Berlese 1884 non Hermann 1804]S94

Feiderella tarnavensis (Feider 1950) [=Microtrombidium pusillum tarnavensis, Microthrombium tirnavense (l. c.), Microtrombidium tarnavense, Microtrombidium tirnavense (l. c.), Microtrombidium tyrnaenvse (l. c.); incl. Microtrombidium tarnavensis f. amphibia]S94

Georgia pulcherrima (Haller 1882) [=Microtrombidium pulcherrimum; incl. Ottonia ramosa George 1909, *Georgia ramosa, G. pulcherrima var. similis (Halbert 1915)]S94

*Gonothrombium bimaculatum (Feider 1950) [=Microtrombidium (Gonotrombidium) bimaculatum, M. (G.) binoculatum Feider 1948 (n. n.)]S94

Gonothrombium oudemansianum (Feider 1948) [=Microtrombidium (Enemothrombium) oudemansianum, Anicrotrombidium audemansianum (l. c.), Atractothrombium oudemansianum]S94

Holcotrombidium Womersley 1945S94 [=Holcothrombium (l. c.)S94; incl. Lobothrombium Feider 1952G96, Mastothrombium Feider 1952G96]

Holcotrombidium cygnus (Womersley 1936) [=Microtrombidium cygnus, Enemothrombium cygnus, Holcotrombidium cynus (l. c.)]H98

Holcotrombidium dentipile (Canestrini 1897)S76 [=Ottonia dentipilisS76, *Lobothrombium dentipileG96, *Mastothrombium dentipileG96, Microtrombidium (Enemothrombium) dentipileS76]

‘Platytrombidium fuscicomum’ baderi Southcott 1994 [=Microtrombidium fuscicomum var. minor Schweizer & Bader 1963 nec M. pusillum var. minor Schweizer 1922 nec M. simulans var. minor Schweizer 1922]S94

Sucidothrombium sucidum (Koch 1879)S94 [=Rhyncholophus sucidusS94, Microtrombidium sucidumS94, Trombidium sucidumS94; incl. T. armatum Kramer 1883T05, Ottonia plancaT05, O. spinifera Thor 1900T05]

Trichotrombidium hemistriatum (Womersely 1942) [=Trombidium hemistriatum, Trombicula hemistriatum; incl. *Trichotrombidium muscae Kobulej 1950, Trombidium muscarum Riley 1878 (n. d.), Microtrombidium (Enemotrombidium [l. c. for Enemothrombium]) muscarum, Phlogothrombium muscarum, Plagothrombium (l. c.) muscarum]S94

Willungella echidnina (Hirst 1931)S94 [=Microtrombidium echidninumH98, Echinothrombium echidninumS94; incl. M. (Enemothrombium) victoriense Womersley 1934H98, W34]

Willungella spinata (Womersley 1934)S94 [=Microtrombidium spinatumH98, Echidninum (l. c.) spinatumH98, Echinothrombium spinatumS94]

*Willungella willungae (Hirst 1931) [=Microtrombidium willungae, Echinothrombium willungae, Ettmuelleria willungae]S94

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[DPD16] Dabert, M., H. Proctor & J. Dabert. 2016. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 75–90.

[DW10] Dabert, M., W. Witalinski, A. Kazmierski, Z. Olszanowski & J. Dabert. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of acariform mites (Acari, Arachnida): strong conflict between phylogenetic signal and long-branch attraction artifacts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 56 (1): 222–241.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G96] Gabrys, G. 1996. Does Enemothrombium Berlese, 1910 (Microtrombidiidae) have the right to exist? In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 363–365. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[MF11] Mąkol, J., & M. Felska. 2011. New records of spiders (Araneae) as hosts of terrestrial Parasitengona mites (Acari: Actinotrichida: Prostigmata). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 352–354.

[MB12] Mayoral, J. G., & P. Barranco. 2012. A new genus and species of larval mite (Acari: Prostigmata: Microtrombidiidae) parasitising Orthoptera (Tettigoniidae) from the Sierra Nevada, Spain. Systematic Parasitology 83: 77–84.

[M46] Michener, C. D. 1946. The taxonomy and bionomics of some Panamanian trombidiid mites. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 39: 349–380.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S76] Shiba, M. 1976. Taxonomic investigation on free-living Prostigmata from the Malay Peninsula. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 7: 83–229.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[S94] Southcott, R. V. 1994. Revision of the larvae of the Microtrombidiinae (Acarina, Microtrombidiidae), with notes on life histories. Zoologica 48 (2): 1–155.

[SL71] Spain, A. V., & M. Luxton. 1971. Catalog and bibliography of the Acari of the New Zealand subregion. Pacific Insects Monograph 25: 179–226.

[T35] Thor, S. 1935. Übersicht und Einteilung der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814 in Unterfamilien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 109 (5–6): 107–112.

[T36] Thor, S. 1936. Neue Gattungen in der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814. Zoologischer Anzeiger 114: 29–32.

[T05] Trägårdh, I. 1905. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 1–78. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: features facilitating coexistence. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 121–135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[W34] Womersley, H. 1934. A revision of the trombid and erythraeid mites of Australia with descriptions of new genera and species. Records of the South Australian Museum 5 (2): 179–254.

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