Field vole Microtus agrestis, photographed by Ernie Janes.

Belongs within: Arvicolinae.
Contains: Microtus oeconomus, Microtus pennsylvanicus.

Microtus, the meadow voles, is a Holarctic genus of relatively unspecialised voles found living in grassy areas. Well-known species include the field vole Microtus agrestis, which is found across a large part of northern Eurasia. The long-tailed vole M. longicaudus is found in western North America, and lacks the hip glands found in other Microtus species.

<==Microtus [incl. Tyrrhenicola Major 1905]AC98
|--+--M. clarkeiFS15
| `--+--+--M. oeconomusFS15
| | `--+--M. kikuchiiFS15
| | `--M. montebelliFS15
| `--+--M. sachalinensisFS15
| `--+--+--M. fortisFS15
| | `--M. limnophilusFS15
| `--+--+--M. middendorffiiFS15
| | `--M. mongolicusFS15
| `--+--M. maximowicziiFS15
| `--+--M. mujanensisFS15
| `--+--M. evoronensisFS15
| `--M. nasaroviFS15
`--+--M. agrestis (Linnaeus 1761)FS15, KJ08
`--+--+--+--+--M. levisFS15
| | | `--+--M. transcaspicus Satunin 1905FS15, K92
| | | `--+--M. arvalis (Pallas 1778)FS15, KJ08
| | | `--M. ilaeusFS15
| | `--+--M. schelkovnikoviFS15
| | `--+--+--M. dogramaciiFS15
| | | `--M. guentheriFS15
| | `--+--+--M. schidlovskiiFS15
| | | `--M. socialisFS15
| | `--+--M. anatolicusFS15
| | `--+--M. iraniFS15
| | `--M. paradoxusFS15
| `--+--+--M. majoriFS15
| | `--+--M. daghestanicusFS15 [=Pitymys daghestanicusPZR76]
| | `--M. subterraneusFS15 [=Pitymys subterraneusPZR76]
| `--+--+--M. thomasiFS15 [=Pitymys thomasiPZR76; incl. P. atticusPZR76]
| | `--+--M. felteni (Malec & Storch 1963)FS15, PZR76 [=Pitymys savii felteniPZR76]
| | `--M. henseli (Forsyth Major 1882)FS15, AC98 [=Arvicola henseliAC98, Tyrrhenicola henseliAC98]
| `--+--+--+--M. hyperboreusFS15
| | | `--M. tatricusFS15
| | `--+--M. saviiFS15 [=Pitymys saviiPZR76]
| | `--+--M. brachycercusFS15
| | `--M. qazvinensisFS15
| `--+--+--M. gerbeiFS15
| | `--+--M. duodecimcostatusFS15
| | `--M. lusitanicusFS15
| `--+--M. multiplexFS15
| `--+--M. bavaricus König 1962FS15, N10 [=Pitymys bavaricusBP87]
| `--M. lichtensteiniFS15 [=Pitymys liechtensteiniPZR76]
| |--B. afghanusIT07
| `--B. bucharensisFS15
`--+--+--M. cabreraeFS15
| `--M. richardsoniFS15 [=Arvicola richardsoniM87, M. (Aulacomys) richardsoniM87]
`--+--+--M. xanthognathusFS15
| `--+--+--M. longicaudusFS15
| | | |--M. l. longicaudusA56
| | | |--M. l. alticolus [=Arvicola alticolus]HC52
| | | |--M. l. halli [incl. M. longicaudus angustus]HC52
| | | |--M. ‘mordax’ macrurusH36
| | | `--M. l. mordax (Merriam 1891) [=Arvicola (Mynomes) mordax]HC52
| | `--M. oregoniFS15 [=M. (Chilotus) oregoniM87, M. (Suranomys) oregoniM87]
| `--+--+--M. canicaudusFS15 [=M. montanus canicaudusJ68]
| | `--M. townsendiiFS15
| | |--M. t. townsendiiH36
| | |--M. t. cummingi Hall 1936H36
| | `--M. t. tetramerusH36
| `--+--M. montanusFS15
| | |--M. m. montanusA56
| | |--M. m. canescens [=M. nanus canescens]HC52
| | `--M. m. fususA56
| `--+--M. breweriFS15
| `--M. pennsylvanicusM87
`--+--+--M. ochrogaster (Wagner in Schreber 1842)FS15, B75 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--M. o. ochrogasterA56
| | |--M. o. haydeniA56
| | |--M. o. ilanensisMH03
| | |--M. o. ludovicianusBP87
| | `--M. o. minorB75
| `--+--M. californicus (Peale 1848)FS15, K92
| | |--M. c. californicusBP87
| | `--M. c. scirpensisBP87
| `--M. mexicanusFS15
| |--M. m. mexicanusG69
| `--M. m. fulviventerG69
`--+--M. chrotorrhinusFS15
`--+--+--M. umbrosusFS15 [=M. (Orthriomys) umbrosusG69]
| `--+--M. abbreviatusFS15 [=M. miurus abbreviatusRR75]
| `--M. miurus Osgood 1901FS15
| |--M. m. miurusHC52
| |--M. m. andersoni Rand 1945HC52
| |--M. m. cantator Anderson 1947HC52
| |--M. m. muriei Nelson 1931 [incl. M. (Stenocranius) miurus paneaki Rausch 1950]HC52
| `--M. m. oreas Osgood 1907HC52
`--+--+--M. guatemalensisFS15
| `--M. oaxacensisFS15
`--+--M. pinetorumFS15 [=M. (Pitymys) pinetorumM87]
| |--M. p. pinetorumB75
| |--M. p. nemoralis Bailey 1898B75 [=Pitymys pinetorum nemoralisHC52]
| |--‘Pitymys’ p. scalopsoides (Audubon & Bachman 1841) [=Arvicola scalopsoides]HC52
| `--‘Pitymys’ p. schmidtiHC52
`--M. quasiaterFS15 [=M. (Pitymys) quasiaterG69]

Microtus incertae sedis:
M. ireneIT07
M. juldaschiIT07
M. kermanensisIT07
M. kirgisorumIT07
M. leucurusIT07
M. meadensisMH03
M. melitensis (Bate 1920) [=Arvicola melitensis]AC98
M. musignaniB-H00
|--M. m. musignaniB-H00
`--M. m. illyricus Barrett-Hamilton 1899B-H00
M. nesophilusBP87
M. obscurusIT07
M. paroperariusMH03
M. persicusB-H00
M. pliocaenicus (Kormos 1933)MH03
‘Pitymys’ pyrenaicusPZR76
M. rossiaemeridionalisIT07
M. sikimensisIT07
M. subterraneus (de Sélys-Longchamps 1836)KJ08

Microtus ochrogaster (Wagner in Schreber 1842)FS15, B75 [=Hypudaeus ochrogasterB75, M. (Pedomys) ochrogasterM87]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1–29.

[A56] Anderson, S. 1956. Subspeciation in the meadow mouse, Microtus pennsylvanicus, in Wyoming, Colorado, and adjacent areas. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 9 (4): 85–104.

[B-H00] Barrett-Hamilton, G. E. H. 1900. Note on the common hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus, Linnaeus) and its subspecies or local variations. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 360–368.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[H36] Hall, E. R. 1936. A new meadow mouse from Bowen Island, British Columbia. The Murrelet 17: 15–16.

[HC52] Hall, E. R., & E. L. Cockrum. 1952. Comments on the taxonomy and geographic distribution of North American microtines. University of Kansas Publications, Museum of Natural History 5 (23): 293–312.

[IT07] Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman & J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: conservation priorities based on threat and phylogeny. PloS One 2 (3): e296.

[J68] Johnson, M. L. 1968. Application of blood protein electrophoretic studies to problems in mammalian taxonomy. Systematic Zoology 17 (1): 23–30.

[K92] Klompen, J. S. H. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships in the mite family Sarcoptidae (Acari: Astigmata). Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 180: i–vi, 1–154.

[KJ08] Krämer, M. & M. Jentzsch. 2008. Kleinsäuger-Vorkommen aus dem Raum Zeitz—eine vergleichende Studie. Mauritiana 20 (2): 411–427.

[MH03] Martin, R. A., R. T. Hurt, J. G. Honey & P. Peláez-Campomanes. 2003. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene rodents fom the northern Borchers Badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin. Journal of Paleontology 77 (5): 985–1001.

[M87] Modi, W. S. 1987. Phylogenetic analyses of chromosomal banding patterns among the Nearctic Arvicolidae (Mammalia: Rodentia). Systematic Zoology 36 (2): 109–136.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[PZR76] Petrov, B., S. Živković & D. Rimsa. 1976. Über die Arteigenständigkeit der Kleinwühlmaus Pitymys felteni (Mammalia: Rodentia). Senckenbergiana Biologica 57 (1-3): 1-10.

[RR75] Rausch, R. L., & V. R. Rausch. 1975. Relationships of the red-backed vole, Clethrionomys rutilus (Pallas), in North America: karyotypes of the subspecies dawsoni and albiventer. Systematic Zoology 24 (2): 163–170.

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