Prairie acacia Acaciella angustissima, copyright duckswim2.

Belongs within: Caesalpinieae.
Contains: ProsopisParkia, Vachellia, Mimosa, Senegalia, Ingeae.

The Mimosoideae are a clade of leguminous plants containing the acacias and related species. Most species are trees or shrubs with a small number of lianes or herbs. Mimosoids generally have small flowers clustered into heads or spikes. Leaves are bipinnate or reduced to phyllodes and often bear extrafloral nectaries. The fossil record of mimosoids extends to the Upper Cretaceous where they are represented by the leaf taxon Acaciaphyllites grevilleoides (Collinson et al. 1993).

Tribes within Mimosoideae have been distinguished by the configuration of the stamens. Mimoseae were recognised as bearing flowers with a definitive number of stamens, about ten, that are all free. Acacieae bear numerous stamens, usually free though rarely basally united. Ingeae bear numerous stamens with the filaments commonly united to form a more or less elongate tube (Orchard & Wilson 2001). However, recent phylogenetic analyses have not supported the monophyly of any of these tribes (Kyalangalilwa et al. 2013). ‘Mimoseae’ are paraphyletic to all other tribes. ‘Acacieae’ and its largest genus Acacia have both been established as polyphyletic, leading to recognition of the segregate genera Vachellia and Senegalia. ‘Ingeae’ may largely form a single clade but may be paraphyletic to Acacia sensu stricto (Kyalangalilwa et al. 2013).

Exemplars of Mimosoideae include Neptunia, a genus of prostrate herbs or low shrubs with well-developed, persistent stipules. Entada are tropical trees, shrubs and lianes producing jointed seed-pods that may reach massive sizes. Adenanthera is an Indo-Pacific genus of trees producing flowers in racemes or panicles; seeds have a scarlet or bicoloured testa. Pentaclethra are trees bearing flowers with five imbricate sepals and five petals joined at the base.

Characters (from Orchard & Wilson 2001): Mostly trees and shrubs, occasionally lianes or herbs, unarmed or with stipular spines or prickles. Leaves alternate, bipinnate or reduced to phyllodes, commonly with extrafloral nectaries on either or both main and secondary axes; stipules rarely absent, but often caducous; leaflets (when present) generally opposite, rarely alternate. Inflorescence globular to oblong clusters, solitary or aggregated in axillary, terminal or cauliflorous/ramiflorous, simple racemes to complex, compound panicles. Flowers sessile or pedicellate, mostly 4-or 5-merous, regular, bisexual, unisexual or some neuter, green, white, cream, yellow, red or purple. Stamens few to numerous; filaments free or united at base or forming a tube, this sometimes adnate with corolla base; anthers dorsifixed or basifixed, sometimes with apical, stalked, caducous gland. Pistil solitary or several, free. Pod dehiscent by one or both margins or indehiscent, sometimes fragmenting in one-seeded sections. Seeds oriented transversely, obliquely or longitudinally; pleurogram generally present but sometimes lacking.

<==Mimosoideae [Mimosaceae, Mimoseae, Acacieae]
    |--+--Adenanthera [Adenanthereae]KB13
    |  |    |--A. abrospermaB00
    |  |    `--A. pavoninaP88
    |  `--PentaclethraKB13
    |       |--P. eetveldeanaKB13
    |       `--P. macrophyllaKB13
       |  |    |--E. elephantinaKB13
       |  |    |--E. rangeiCV06
       |  |    `--E. schinzianaCV06
       |  `--Piptadeniastrum africanumKB13
       `--+--+--Fillaeopsis discophoraKB13
          |  `--NewtoniaKB13
          |       |--N. buchananiiKB13
          |       `--N. hildebrandtiiKB13
          `--+--Cylicodiscus gabunensisKB13
             `--+--+--+--Xerocladia viridiramisKB13
                |  |  `--ProsopisKB13
                |  `--+--+--Mimozyganthus carinatusKB13
                |     |  `--Piptadeniopsis lomentiferaKB13
                |     |--NeptuniaKB13
                |     |    |--N. dimorphaOW01
                |     |    |--N. dimorphanthaB00
                |     |    |--N. gracilisB00
                |     |    |--N. majorLK14
                |     |    |--N. monospermaB00
                |     |    `--N. triquetra [=Desmanthus triquetrus]C55
                |     |--+--Alantsilodendron pilosumKB13
                |     |  |--Calliandropsis nervosusKB13
                |     |  |--Gagnebina bakoliaeKB13
                |     |  `--Dichrostachys cinereaKB13
                |     |       |--D. c. var. cinereaKB13
                |     |       `--+--D. c. var. africanaKB13
                |     |          `--‘Neptunia’ oleraceaKB13 (see below for synonymy)
                |     `--+--LeucaenaKB13
                |        |    |--L. glaucaB88
                |        |    |--L. latisiliquaPP07
                |        |    |--L. leucocephalaB00
                |        |    |--L. pulverulentaRC02
                |        |    `--L. retusaKB13
                |        `--+--Prosopidastrum mexicanumKB13
                |           `--+--Schleinitzia insularumKB13
                |              `--+--Kanaloa kahoolawensisKB13
                |                 `--DesmanthusKB13
                |                      |--D. bicornutusKB13
                |                      |--D. cooleyiKB13
                |                      |--D. illinoensisG05
                |                      |--D. velutinusG05
                |                      `--D. virgatus [incl. D. leptophyllus, D. strictus]C55
                `--+--+--Anadenanthera colubrinaKB13
                   |  `--ParkiaKB13
                         |  |    |--P. contortaKB13
                         |  |    `--P. suaveolensKB13
                         |  |--StryphnodendronKB13
                         |  |    |--S. porcatumKB13
                         |  |    `--S. rotundifoliumKB13
                         |  `--+--Microlobius foetidusKB13
                         |     `--ParapiptadeniaKB13
                         |          |--P. excelsaHH03
                         |          |--P. pterospermaKB13
                         |          `--P. rigidaKB13
                            |  `--PiptadeniaKB13
                            |       |  i. s.: P. buchananiiW86
                            |       |--P. stipulaceaKB13
                            |       `--+--P. minutifloraKB13
                            |          `--P. peruvianaKB13
                               `--+--+--‘Senegalia’ muricataKB13
                                  |  `--‘Acacia’ scleroxylaKB13
                                  |    |--+--M. salazariKB13
                                  |    |  `--M. willardianaKB13
                                  |    `--+--+--M. dolichostachyaKB13
                                  |       |  `--M. usumacintensisKB13
                                  |       `--+--M. acatlensisKB13
                                  |          |--M. coulteri [=Acacia coulteri]KB13
                                  |          `--M. sericeaKB13
                                  `--+--‘Senegalia’ viscoKB13
                                        |    |  i. s.: A. hartwegiiKB13
                                        |    |--A. angustissimaKB13
                                        |    `--+--A. glaucaKB13
                                        |       `--+--A. bolivianaKB13
                                        |          |--A. roseiKB13
                                        |          `--+--A. chamelensisKB13
                                        |             `--A. tequilanaKB13
Mimosoideae incertae sedis:
  Acaciaphyllites grevilleoides Berry 1914CBH93
  Eomimosoidea plumosa Crepet & Dilcher 1977CBH93
  Brevicolporites guinetii Guinet & Salard-Cheboldaeff 1975CBH93
    |--P. dulceHSS13
    |--P. elegansKIW98
    |--P. flexicauleRJ11
    |--P. monoliferumH42
    |--P. oppositifoliumJ87
    `--P. samanF11
    |--*P. multipartitusOW01
    |--P. granulosusOW01
    `--P. vancampoiOW01
    |--*A. myriosporitesOW01
    |--A. miocenicus Mildenhall & Pocknall 1989OW01
    |--A. octosporitesOW01
    `--A. weissii Macphail & Truswell 1993OW01
    |--E. phaseoloidesB00
    `--E. scandensT-W89
  Painteria leptophylla [incl. Acacia mauroceana DC. 1813, A. purpurea Bolle 1861]KB13

‘Neptunia’ oleraceaKB13 [incl. Desmanthus lacustrisC55, D. natansC55, Neptunia stoloniferaC55]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[G05] Grissell, E. E. 2005. A review of North American species of Microdontomerus Crawford (Torymidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 14 (1): 22–65.

[HH03] Hernández, J. R., & J. F. Hennen. 2003. Rust fungi causing galls, witches’ brooms, and other abnormal plant growths in northwestern Argentina. Mycologia 95 (4): 728–755.

[H42] Hill, G. F. 1942. Termites (Isoptera) from the Australian Region (including Australia, New Guinea and islands south of the Equator between 140°E. longitude and 170°W. longitude). Commonwealth of Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research: Melbourne.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World’s Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83–112.

[KB13] Kyalangalilwa, B., J. S. Boatwright, B. H. Daru, O. Maurin & M. van der Bank. 2013. Phylogenetic position and revised classification of Acacia s.l. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in Africa, including new combinations in Vachellia and Senegalia. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 172: 500–523.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[OW01] Orchard, A. E., & A. J. G. Wilson (eds) 2001. Flora of Australia vol. 11A. Mimosaceae, Acacia part 1. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[PP07] Pandey, R. P., & P. M. Padhye. 2007. Studies on phytodiversity of Arid Machia Safari Park-Kailana in Jodhpur (Rajasthan). Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 15–78.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RC02] Riley, E. G., S. M. Clark, R. W. Flowers & A. J. Gilbert. 2002. Chrysomelidae Latreille 1802. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 617–691. CRC Press.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[W86] Wood, S. L. 1986. A reclassification of the genera of Scolytidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 10: 1–126.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *