Mirandornithes

Little grebes Tachybaptus ruficollis, copyright Frank Vassen.

Belongs within: Neognathae.
Contains: Podiceps.

The Mirandornithes are a clade of birds supported by molecular data, uniting two distinct subgroups, the Podicipedidae and Phoenicopteriformes. The Podicipedidae, grebes and dabchicks, are specialised aquatic birds found on freshwater lakes and ponds. Grebes have large feet set well back on the body with lobed toes, tails reduced to a vestigial tuft, and small narrow wings. Grebe nests are floating platforms made from pieces of vegetation and anchored to reeds in shallow water; both sexes participate in the construction of the nest and the rearing of the chicks. Courtship displays are often complex, comprising mutual or complementary movements by both partners.

Examples of grebes include the pied-billed grebes of the genus Podilymbus which have relatively short, stout bills marked in summer by a distinctive vertical black stripe. Tachybaptus is a genus of small grebes with a ‘powder-puff’ rear end.

The Phoenicopteriformes include the flamingos (Phoenicopteridae) and their fossil relatives. Flamingos have exceedingly long necks and legs, a distinctively-shaped down-curved bill, and front toes joined by full webs while the hind toe is elevated or absent. They feed on brine shrimp and other micro-organisms filtered from water with pigments from their diet giving them a distinctive reddish coloration. The majority of flamingo species are found in the Neotropical region with the greater flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus and lesser flamingo P. minor found in the Old World. A number of fossil taxa have historically also been included in the Phoenicopteriformes but their positions are uncertain.

<==Mirandornithes [Phoenicopterimorphae]KF-V21
|--Phoenicopteriformes [Odontoglossae, Phoenicopteri]PB15
| |--Phoeniconotius Miller 1963M09, OF80
| | `--P. eyrensis Miller 1963M09
| |--ScaniornithidaeW51
| | |--Parascaniornis stensioi Lambrecht 1933W51, OF80
| | `--Scaniornis Dames 1890M02
| | `--*S. lundgreni Dames 1890M02
| |--Agnopterus Milne-Edwards 1868M09, M02 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--*A. laurillardi Milne-Edwards 1868M02
| | |--A. hantoniensis Lydekker 1891M09 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--A. sicki Alvarenga 1990M09
| | `--A. turgaiensis Tugarinov 1940 [incl. Cygnopterus lambrechti Kuročkin 1968]M02
| `--PhoenicopteridaeBKB15
| |--Tiliornis senex Ameghino 1899OF80
| |--Kashinia Harrison & Walker 1979 [=Tenuicrus Harrison & Walker 1976 non Womersley 1940]M02
| | `--*K. magna (Harrison & Walker 1976) [=*Tenuicrus magnum]M02
| |--Harrisonavis Kašin 1978 (see below for synonymy)M02
| | `--*H. croizeti (Gervais 1852)M02, M09 [=Phoenicopterus croizetiM09, *Gervaisia croiseti (l. c.)M02]
| |--Elornis Milne-Edwards 1868M05, M02 [=Helornis Lydekker 1891M02]
| | |--*E. littoralis Milne-Edwards 1867M02, M09 (see below for synonymy)
| | |--E. anglicus Lydekker 1891 [=Helornis anglicus]M02
| | `--E. grandis Milne-Edwards 1869M02
| `--Phoenicopterus Linnaeus 1758M02
| | i. s.: P. antiquorumVS14
| | P. floridanusFP64
| | P. novaehollandiae Miller 1963M09
| |--+--*P. ruber Linnaeus 1758L58, BKB15, CS77
| | `--+--P. andinusCS77 [=Phoenicoparrus andinusBKB15]
| | `--P. jamesiCS77 [=Phoenicoparrus jamesiBKB15]
| `--+--P. minor Geoffroy 1798BKB15, CS77 [=Phoeniconaias minorCS77]
| `--+--P. chilensis Molina 1782BKB15, CS77 [=P. ruber chilensisRN72; incl. P. ignicapillusF43]
| `--P. roseus Pallas 1811JT12, CS77 [=P. ruber roseusCS77]
`--Podicipedidae (see below for synonymy)PB15
| i. s.: Poliocephalus Selby 1840CC10
| |--*P. poliocephalus (Jardine & Selby 1827) (see below for synonymy)CC10
| |--P. ruficollisP73
| | |--P. r. ruficollisP73
| | `--P. r. novaehollandiaeP73
| `--P. rufopectus (Gray in Dieffenbach 1843) (see below for synonymy)CC10
| Miobaptus Švec 1982M02
| `--*M. walteri Švec 1982M02, JM14, M02 [=Podiceps walteriM02]
|--Podilymbus Lesson 1831BKB15, B94 [Podilymbidae]
| |--P. gigasHSS13 [=P. podiceps gigasFP64]
| `--P. podiceps (Linnaeus 1758) [=Colymbus podiceps]CS77
| |--P. p. podicepsCS77
| |--P. p. antarcticus (Lesson 1842)CS77
| `--P. p. antillarum Bangs 1913CS77
`--+--Tachybaptus Reichenbach 1849BKB15, CC10
| | i. s.: T. pelzelnii (Hartlaub 1861)CC10
| | T. rufolavatus (Delacour 1932)CC10
| |--T. dominicusBKB15
| `--+--T. novaehollandiae (Stephens in Shaw 1826)JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
| `--T. ruficollis (Pallas 1764)BKB15, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
| |--T. r. ruficollisCS77
| |--T. r. capensis (Salvadori 1884)CS77
| |--T. r. iraquensis (Ticehurst 1923)CS77
| `--T. r. poggeiVP89
`--+--AechmophorusBKB15
| |--A. clarkiBKB15
| `--A. occidentalisBKB15
`--PodicepsBKB15

Agnopterus Milne-Edwards 1868M09, M02 [incl. Gigantibis Harrison & Walker 1976M02, Headonornis Harrison & Walker 1976M05; Agnopteridae]

Agnopterus hantoniensis Lydekker 1891M09 [=*Headonornis hantoniensisM02, Presbyornis hantoniensisM02; incl. *Gigantibis incognita Harrison & Walker 1976M02, M09]

*Elornis littoralis Milne-Edwards 1867M02, M09 [=*Helornis littoralisM02; incl. E. antiquus Aymard 1856 (nom. inv.)M02]

Harrisonavis Kašin 1978 [=Gervaisia Harrison & Walker 1976 nec Bonaparte 1854 nec Waga 1858 nec Robineau-Desvoidy 1863]M02

Podicipedidae [Colymbiformes, Podicepinae, Podicepsinae, Podicipediformes, Podicipinae, Podicipitidae, Podicipitiformes]PB15

*Poliocephalus poliocephalus (Jardine & Selby 1827) [=Podiceps poliocephalus; incl. Pod. poliocephalus cloatesi Mathews 1912, Pod. nestor Gould 1837]CC10

Poliocephalus rufopectus (Gray in Dieffenbach 1843) [=Podiceps (Poliocephelus [l. c.]) rufopectus, Podiceps rufipectus, Podicipes rufipectus; incl. Fulica novaezelandiae Colenso 1844, F. novazealandiae]CC10

Tachybaptus novaehollandiae (Stephens in Shaw 1826)JT12, CC10 [=Podiceps novaehollandiaeCC10; incl. P. fluviatilis carterae Mathews 1912CC10, P. gularis Gould 1837CC10, P. fluviatilis parryi Mathews 1912CC10]

Tachybaptus ruficollis (Pallas 1764)BKB15, CC10 [=Colymbus ruficollisM02, Podiceps ruficollisM02; incl. C. minorCC10, *Tachybaptus minorCC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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