Miridae

 Fulvius sp., copyright S. Cresswell.

Belongs within: Cimicomorpha.
Contains: OrthotylinaePhytocoris, Phylinae, Bryocorinae, Mirinae.

The Miridae are a diverse family of true bugs including both phytophagous and carnivorous species. They can be distinguished from most other bug families by the presence of a cuneus in the forewing, together with a four-segmented labium (Carver et al. 1991). They also generally lack ocelli though some authors would include the ocelli-bearing Isometopinae as a basal subfamily.

The subfamily Cylapinae includes species believed to be mycetophagous; members of the Cylapinae and Psallopinae possess a subapical tooth on the tarsal claws. Psallopinae have two-segmented tarsi and a single cell in the wing membrane, and lack a rounded pronotal collar. Members of the Mirinae, Bryocorinae, Phylinae and Orthotylinae possess pulvilli or pseudopulvilli in association with the claws. Deraeocorinae lack both subapical claw-teeth and pulvilli though the claws may possess teeth basally. The Mirinae and Deraeocorinae are united by the presence of a secondary gonopore in the male and similar genitalia in the female (Carver et al. 1991).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Length 2-6 mm long; ocelli usually absent (except in Isometopinae); mesofemoral and metafemoral trichobothria present; forewing with cuneus (except in some brachypters), 1 or 2 cells in forewing membrane; abdomen without ventral trichobothria; specialised male and female genitalia.

<==Miridae [Capsidae]
    |--PsallopsCGW91 [PsallopinaeW79]
    `--+--PhylinaeW79
       `--+--+--BryocorinaeW79
          |  `--MirinaeW79
          `--CylapinaeW79
               |  i. s.: Peritropis listeri (Izzard 1936)MC13, JG19 [=Cylapofulvius listeriJG19]
               |--Bakeriola [Bothriomirini]CGW91
               |--Fulvius [Fulviini]CGW91
               `--CylapiniCGW91
                    |--CarvalhomaCGW91
                    `--SchizopteromirisCGW91
Miridae incertae sedis:
  Chaetedus reuterianusM83
  HeterocordylusH01
    |--H. genistaeH01
    `--H. tibialisA71
  Asciodema obsoletumA71
  OrthotylinaeCGW91
  AuricillocorisMC94
  CtypomirisMC94
  DioclerusMC94
  MyiocapsusMC94
  MertilaMC94
  HarpedonaMC94
  ProdromusMC94
  ThaumastomirisMC94
  Diomocoris russatusWFS04
  Chinamiris nigrifronsWFS04
  CyphodemaS54
    |--C. hilareS54
    |--C. instabileS54
    |--C. mendosumS54
    |--C. oberthuriS54
    |--C. pernixS54
    `--C. rubricum Seidenstücker 1954S54
  DeraeocorinaeCGW91
    |--Termatophyloides [Termatophylini]CGW91
    |--Deraeocoris Kirschbaum 1855GM79 [incl. Estuidus Distant 1904G34a, GM79; Deraeocorini]
    |    |--D. brevisG01
    |    `--D. signatusCGW91
    `--SaturniomiriniCGW91
         |--Trilaccus nigroruberCGW91
         `--ImogenWEE70
  LygocorisYS01
  MonocorisGE05
  RanzoviusGE05
  RagmusG34a
    |--R. argenteus Girault 1934G34b
    |--R. importunitasG34a
    |--R. liebknechti Girault 1934G34a
    |--R. pulcher Girault 1934G34a
    `--R. seminigricaput Girault 1934G34b
  ParacalocorisG34a
    |--P. australisG34a
    `--P. semiflavifemur Girault 1934G34a
  Rhinomiridius bioculatus Girault 1934G34a
  NesiomirisO94
  Orectoderus obliquusBM76
  NotostiraK08
    |--N. doddiK08
    |--N. elongataK09
    |--N. erratica [incl. N. erratica var. ochracea]H01
    `--N. pacifica Kirkaldy 1908K08
  LeptopternaH01
    |--L. dolabrata [incl. L. dolabrata var. aurantiaca]H01
    `--L. ferrugataH01
  Lopus gothicus (Linnaeus 1758)H01, L49 (see below for synonymy)
  AdelphocorisH01
    |--A. annulicornisH01
    |--A. lineolatus [incl. A. chenopodii]H01
    |--A. quadripunctatusH01
    |--A. reicheliH01
    |--A. seticornisH01
    `--A. triannulatus [incl. A. triannulatus var. nigriceps]H01
  PoeciloscytusH01
    |--P. cognatusH01
    |--P. unifasciatusH01
    `--P. vulneratusH01
  PolymerusH01
    |--P. nigritaH01
    `--P. pekinensis Horváth 1901H01
  Camptobrochis lutescensH01
  Rhopalotomus ater [incl. R. ater var. tyrannus]H01
  AllodapusH01
    |--A. montandoniH01
    `--A. pumilus Horváth 1901H01
  Systellonotus triguttatusH01
  Myrmecophyes alboornatusH01
  Anapus longicornisH01
  Euryopocoris nitidusH01
  Orthocephalus vittipennisH01
  Strongylocoris leucocephalusH01
  Criocoris quadrimaculatusH01
  OncotylariaH01
    |--OncotylusH01
    |--LitoxenusH01
    `--Ibiaris Horváth & Reut. in Horváth 1901H01
         `--*I. discretus Horváth & Reut. in Horváth 1901H01
  Isometopinae [Isometopidae]CGW91
    |--Eurocrypha thanatochlamysCGW91
    |--IsometopusK08
    `--Letaba bedfordiRD77
  Nesocrypha Kirkaldy 1908K08
    `--*N. corticicola Kirkaldy 1908K08
  Hyaloscytus elegantulus Reuter 1904 [incl. H. elegantulus var. filicicola Kirkaldy 1908]K08
  Tichorhinus vitiensis Kirkaldy 1908K08
  Nesosylphas Kirkaldy 1908K08
    `--*N. pacifica Kirkaldy 1908K08
  DisphinctusK08
  MalacopeplusK08
  CapsiniK08
    |--Nesodaphne Kirkaldy 1908K08
    |    `--*N. knowlesi Kirkaldy 1908K08
    `--CapsusE12
         |--C. capillaris [=Phytocoris capillaris; incl. C. tricolor, C. vanicus]L49
         |--C. minutus Lucas 1847E12
         |--C. pilosusL49
         `--C. rugicollis Lucas 1847E12
  PhytocorisK08
  TaylorilygusWEE74
    |--T. aldrichi (Izzard 1936) [=Lygus aldrichi]JG19
    `--T. murrayi (Izzard 1936) [=Lygus murrayi]JG19
  Fushunimiris Hong 2002H02
    `--*F. eocenica Hong 2002H02
  ‘Noliphus’ ruficollis Walker 1871D01
  Cremnocephalus albolineatusR13
  Blepharidopterus angulatusRD77
  Plesiocoris rugicollisRD77
  Sahlbergella singularisRD77
  Distantiella theobromaRD77
  AmbercylapusP92
  ArcheofulviusP92
  JordanofulviusP92
  AetorhinusP92
  DichrooscytusP92
  HarpoceraP92
  HomodemusP92
  HoplomachusP92
  OrthopsP92
  Neurocolpus arizonaeE66
  Macrolophus pygmaeusCK15
  Pseudopsallus lattiniYR12
  Heterotoma spissicornis [=Capsus spissicornis]L49

Lopus gothicus (Linnaeus 1758)H01, L49 [=Cimex (Seticornis) gothicusL49, L58, Capsus gothicusL49, Phytocoris gothicusL49]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CK15] Calvo, F. J., M. Knapp, Y. M. van Houten, H. Hoogerbrugge & J. E. Belda. 2015. Amblyseius swirskii: what made this predatory mite such a successful biocontrol agent? Experimental and Applied Acarology 65: 419–433.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D01] Distant, W. L. 1901. Rhynchotal notes.—IX. Heteroptera: fam. Coreidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 416–432.

[E66] Evans, H. E. 1966. The Comparative Ethology and Evolution of the Sand Wasps. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G34a] Girault, A. A. 1934a. Miridae et Hymenoptera nova Australiensis. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 308–310).

[G34b] Girault, A. A. 1934b. New Capsidae and Hymenoptera, with note on an unmentionable. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 311–314).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G01] Gupta, S. K. 2001. A conspectus of natural enemies of phytophagous mites and mites as potential biocontrol agents of agricultural pests in India. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 484–497. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[JG19] James, D. J., P. T. Green, W. F. Humphreys & J. C. Z. Woinarski. 2019. Endemic species of Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Records of the Western Australian Museum 34 (2): 55–114.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[L49] Lucas, H. 1849. Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie pendant les années 1840, 1841, 1842 publiée par ordre du gouvernement et avec le concours d’une commission académique. Sciences physiques. Zoologie. II. Histoire naturelle des animaux articulés. Troisième partie. Insectes (suite). Imprimerie Nationale: Paris.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: an annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[MC94] Morrone, J. J., & J. M. Carpenter. 1994. In search of a method for cladistic biogeography: an empirical comparison of component analysis, Brooks parsimony analysis, and three-area statements. Cladistics 10: 99–153.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[S54] Seidenstücker, G. 1954. Cyphodema rubricum n. sp., eine neue Mirine aus Syrien (Ins. Hem. Het. Miridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 99–100.

[W79] Wiley, E. O. 1979. An annotated Linnean hierarchy, with comments on natural taxa and competing systems. Systematic Zoology 28 (3): 308–337.

[WFS04] Winks, C. J., S. V. Fowler & L. A. Smith. 2004. Invertebrate fauna of boneseed, Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (L.) T. Norl. (Asteraceae: Calenduleae), an invasive weed in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 27: 61–72.

[WEE74] Woodward, T. E., V. F. Eastop & J. W. Evans. 1974. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 52–57. Melbourne University Press.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YR12] Yao, Y., D. Ren, D. A. Rider & W. Cai. 2012. Phylogeny of the infraorder Pentatomomorpha based on fossil and extant morphology, with description of a new fossil family from China. PLoS One 7 (5): e37289.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

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