Pterygia nucea, copyright Philippe Bourjon.

Belongs within: Mitroidea.
Contains: Proximitra, Imbricariinae, StrigatellaNebularia, Mitra.

The Mitridae, mitres, are a group of predatory gastropods with a usually long and tapered shell, and a long extensible proboscis that is usually not retracted. As far as is known, all species are exclusive predators of sipunculan worms (Fedosov et al. 2015).

Characters (from Wilson & Gillett 1971): Shell usually long and tapered, often delicately or strongly sculptured (sometimes smooth), with thin periostracum; columella bearing strong plaits; operculum absent. Proboscis long, extensible, may be longer than shell; radula located in end of proboscis.

Mitridae [Mitracea, Mitriadae, Mitriana, Mitrianae]
    |--‘Mitra’ tuberosa Reeve 1845FP15
    `--+--‘Mitra’ bernhardina Röding 1798FP15
       `--+--‘Mitra’ peculiaris Reeve 1845FP15
             `--+--+--‘Mitra’ glabra Swainson 1821FP15
                |  `--+--‘Mitra’ incompta (Lightfoot 1786)FP15
                |     `--Cylindromitrinae [Cylindrinae, Cylindromitridae]BR05
                |          |--Cylindromitra Fischer 1884 [=Cylindra Schumacher 1817 non Illiger 1802]BR05
                |          |    `--*C. coronata (Schumacher 1817) [=*Cylindra coronata]BR17
                |          `--Pterygia Röding 1798FP15, BR05 (see below for synonymy)
                |               |--*P. dactylus (Linnaeus 1767) [=Voluta dactylus; incl. P. nucella Röding 1798]BR17
                |               |--P. barrywilsoni Cate 1968WG71
                |               |--P. conus (Gmelin 1791)W94
                |               |--P. crenulata (Gmelin 1791)W94 (see below for synonymy)
                |               |--P. fenestrata (Lamarck 1811)W94
                |               |--P. nucea (Gmelin 1791)BW09 [=*Acuticylindra nuceaW94]
                |               |--P. scabricula (Linnaeus 1758)W94
                |               |--P. sinensis (Reeve 1844)MG-H11
                |               |--P. solida Reeve 1844WG71
                |               `--P. undulosa (Reeve 1844)WBS-S15
                   `--+--Mitrinae [Mitrariidae, Mitrariinae]W94
                      |    |--NebulariaFP15
                      |    `--MitraFP15
                      |--Ziba Adams & Adams 1853FP15, W94
                      |    |  i. s.: Z. bacillum (Lamarck 1811)W94
                      |    |         Z. cloveri (Cernohorsky 1971) [=Cancilla (Ziba) cloveri]C80
                      |    |         Z. duplilirata Reeve 1845W94
                      |    |         Z. flammea (Quoy & Gaimard 1833)W94
                      |    |         Z. interlirata (Reeve 1844)MG-H11
                      |    |--*Z. carinata (Swainson 1824)FP15 [=Mitra carinataW94]
                      |    `--+--‘Mitra’ christinaeFP15
                      |       `--+--Z. abyssicola (Schepman 1911)FP15, W94
                      |          `--‘Mitra’ rosacea Reeve 1845FP15, W94 (see below for synonymy)
                      `--+--‘Mitra’ sophiae Crosse 1862FP15, W94 [=M. (Nebularia) sophiaeW94]
                         `--Domiporta Cernohorsky 1970FP15, W94
                              |  i. s.: D. carnicolor (Reeve 1844) [=Cancilla (Domiporta) carnicolor]W94
                              |         D. citharoidea (Dohrn 1862) [=Cancilla (Domiporta) citharoidea]W94
                              |         D. gloriola (Cernohorsky 1970)WBS-S15
                              |         D. rufilirata (Adams & Reeve 1850) [=Cancilla (Domiporta) rufilirata]W94
                              |         D. strangei (Angas 1867) (see below for synonymy)W94
                              |--D. granatina (Lamarck 1811)FP15, W94 [=Cancilla (Domiporta) granatinaW94]
                              `--+--*D. filiaris (Linnaeus 1771)FP15, WG71 (see below for synonymy)
                                 `--D. praestantissima (Röding 1798)FP15, W94 [=Cancilla (Domiporta) praestantissimaW94]
Mitridae incertae sedis:
  ‘Turris’ kaffraria Griesbach 1871P66
  Puruiana Martin 1931P66
    `--*P. rustica Martin 1931P66
  Egestas Finlay 1927P61
    |--*E. waitei (Suter 1909) [=Vexillum waitei]P61
    |--E. dissimilis Powell 1937P61
    `--E. fenestratum (Suter 1917) [=Vexillum fenestratum]F27a
  Eumitra Tate 1889WG71
    |--E. australis Swainson 1822WG71
    |--E. badia Reeve 1845 [incl. E. rhodia Reeve 1845]WG71
    |--E. chalybeia Reeve 1844WG71
    |--E. cookii Sowerby 1874WG71
    |--E. glabra Swainson 1821WG71
    `--E. nigra Gmelin 1791 [incl. E. contermina Iredale 1936, E. melaniana Lamarck 1811]WG71
  Diplomitra Finlay 1927F27a
    |--*D. nitens (Marshall 1918) [=Cymbiola nitens]F27a
    |--D. alokiza (Tenison-Woods 1880) [=Mitra alokiza]F27a
    |--D. calcar (Marshall 1918) [=Cymbiola calcar]F27a
    |--D. dictua (Tenison-Woods 1880) [=Mitra dictua]F27a
    |--D. masefieldi (Marshall 1918) [=Cymbiola masefieldi]F27a
    |--D. monoploca (Finlay 1927)F27a (see below for synonymy)
    `--D. waitemataensis Powell & Bartrum 1929PB29
  ‘Voluta’ ziervoyelii Gmelin 1791 [incl. Cancellaria ziervogeliana Lamarck 1822]PH90
  Isara Adams & Adams 1853 [Isarinae]BR17
    `--*I. bulimoides (Reeve 1845) [=Mitra bulimoides]BR17
  Pleioptygma Conrad 1863Q89 [Pleioptygmatidae, PleioptygmatinaeBR17]
    |--*P. carolinense (Conrad 1840) [=Voluta carolinensis, Mitra carolinensis]Q89
    |--P. helenae (Radwin & Bibbey 1972)Q89
    |--P. lineolatum (Heilprin 1887)Q89
    |    |--P. l. lineolatumQ89
    |    `--P. l. saginatum (Tucker & Wilson 1933)Q89
    `--P. prodroma (Gardner 1937)Q89
Nomen nudum: Waimatea opima Allan 1927A27

Diplomitra monoploca (Finlay 1927)F27a [=Mitra monoplocaF27a, M. uniplica Tate 1889 non M. ebenus var. uniplicatus Wood 1872F27b]

*Domiporta filiaris (Linnaeus 1771)FP15, WG71 [=Voluta filiarisW94, Cancilla (*Domiporta) filiarisW94]

Domiporta strangei (Angas 1867) [=Cancilla (Domiporta) strangei; incl. C. nodostaminea Hedley 1912]W94

‘Mitra’ rosacea Reeve 1845FP15, W94 [=M. (Nebularia) rosaceaW94; incl. M. incarnata Reeve 1845W94]

Pterygia Röding 1798FP15, BR05 [incl. Acuticylindra Iredale 1929W94, Cylinder Melvill & Standen 1895 non Montfort 1810W94, Cylindrina Risbec 1955 non Pat. 1886 (ICBN)W94; Pterygiinae]

Pterygia crenulata (Gmelin 1791)W94 [=Voluta crenulataH09, *Cylinder crenulataW94, Cylindra crenulataH09, *Cylindrina crenulataW94]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A27] Allan, R. S. 1927. The geology and palaeontology of the Lower Waihao Basin, south Canterbury, New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 265–309.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BW09] Bryce, C., & C. Whisson. 2009. The macromolluscs of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 177–208.

[C80] Cernohorsky, W. O. 1980. The taxonomy of some Indo-Pacific Mollusca. Part 8. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 17: 135–152.

[FP15] Fedosov, A., N. Puillandre, Y. Kantor & P. Bouchet. 2015. Phylogeny and systematics of mitriform gastropods (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Neogastropoda). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 175: 336–359.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[PH90] Petit, R. E., & M. G. Harasewych. 1990. Catalogue of the superfamily Cancellarioidea Forbes and Hanley, 1851 (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Nautilus 103 (Suppl. 1): 1–69.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

[PB29] Powell, A. W. B., & J. A. Bartrum. 1929. The Tertiary (Waitematan) molluscan fauna of Oneroa, Waiheke Island. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 60: 395–447.

[Q89] Quinn, J. F., Jr. 1989. Pleioptygmatidae, a new family of mitriform gastropods (Prosobranchia: Neogastropoda). Nautilus 103 (1): 13–19.

[WBS-S15] Willan, R. C., C. Bryce & S. M. Slack-Smith. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: molluscs. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 287–343.

[W94] Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells vol. 2. Prosobranch Gastropods. Part Two (Neogastropods). Odyssey Publishing: Kallaroo (Western Australia).

[WG71] Wilson, B. R., & K. Gillett. 1971. Australian Shells: illustrating and describing 600 species of marine gastropods found in Australian waters. A. H. & A. W. Reed: Sydney.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *