Mitromorphidae

Mitromorpha carpenteri, copyright Natural History Museum Rotterdam.

Belongs within: Conoidea.

The Mitromorphidae are a group of conoid gastropods that typically have mitriform shells with relatively smooth sculpture (Bouchet et al. 2011).

Characters (from Bouchet et al. 2011): Shell small- to medium-sized, 3–30 mm, usually 5–10 mm high, biconic, of mitriform shape. Sculpture rather smooth, with dominant spiral elements. Aperture narrow, with or without 1–3 columellar pleats, sometimes with denticles within. Siphonal canal short or indistinct. Anal sinus from indistinct to rather shallow indentation on weakly pronounced subsutural ramp. Protoconch multispiral or paucispiral, up to 4.5 smooth whorls. No operculum. Radula of hypodermic, marginal, relatively short, awl-shaped teeth with large swollen solid basal part. Distinct ligaments present, short. Tooth canal opening subterminally or laterally. At their tip, teeth can have a weak barb.

<==Mitromorphidae [Diptychomitrinae, Mitrolumnidae, Mitrolumninae, Mitromorphinae, Mitromorphini]
    |  i. s.: ‘Mitra (Subcancilla)’ musa Olsson 1964C75
    |--Mitromorpha Carpenter 1865BK11 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--M. carpenteri Glibert 1954P66 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--M. alba (Petterd 1879)H22 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--M. angusta Verco 1909 [=Mitrithara angusta]P66
    |    |--M. aspera (Carpenter 1864) [=Daphnella aspera]P66
    |    |--M. axicostata Verco 1909 [=Mitrithara axicostata]P66
    |    |--M. axiscalpta Verco 1909 [=Mitromorpha alba var. axiscalpta, Mitrithara axiscalpta]H22
    |    |--M. barbarensis Arnold 1907P66
    |    |--‘Mitrithara’ barrierensis Powell 1942P66
    |    |--‘Mitrithara’ bassiana Gabriel 1956P66
    |    |--‘Itia’ benthicola (Dell 1962) [=Mitrithara (Itia) benthicola]P66
    |    |--M. brachyspira (Suter 1917) [=Borsonia (Mitromorpha) brachyspira, Mitrithara brachyspira]P66
    |    |--‘Diptychomitra’ canaliculata Bellardi 1889 [=Mitrolumna canaliculata]P66
    |    |--‘Bela (Buchozia) cancellata Peyrot 1938 [=Mitrolumna cancellata]P66
    |    |--M. cincta Dall 1890P66
    |    |--‘Diptychomitra’ clathrata Bellardi 1889 [=Mitrolumna clathrata]P66
    |    |--*Itia clatrata (Marwick 1931) [=Mitrithara (*Itia) clatrata]P66
    |    |--‘Mitrithara’ columnaria Hedley 1922P66
    |    |--M. costifera May 1919 [=Mitrithara costifera]P66
    |    |--M. crassilirata Verco 1909P66 [=Mitrithara paucilirata var. crassilirataH22]
    |    |--M. dalli Dautzenberg & Fischer 1896 [=Mitrolumna dalli]BW80
    |    |--M. daphnelloides (Tenison-Woods 1880) [=Mitra daphnelloides, Mitrithara daphnelloides]H22
    |    |--‘Bela (Buchozia) dollfusi Peyrot 1938 [=Mitrolumna dollfusi]P66
    |    |--*Diptychomitra’ eximia Bellardi 1888BR17 [=Mitrolumna eximiaP66]
    |    |--‘Mitrithara’ fenestrata Powell 1944P66
    |    |--‘Diptychomitra’ filifera Bellardi 1889 [=Mitrolumna filifera]P66
    |    |--M. filosa (Dujardin 1837) [=Columbella filosa]P66
    |    |--‘Mitrithara’ formosa Marwick 1931P66
    |    |--‘Daphnella’ fuscoligata Dall 1871 [incl. Mangelia (Mitromorpha) crassaspera Grant & Gale 1931]P66
    |    |--M. galeana Berry 1941P66
    |    |--M. gemmata Suter 1908 [=Mitrithara gemmata]P66
    |    |--‘Mitrithara’ granosa Marwick 1928P66
    |    |--‘Mitrithara’ granulifera Powell 1937P66
    |    |--M. gunteri Mansfield 1931P66
    |    |--M. incerta (Pritchard & Gatliff 1902) [=Mangelia incerta, Mitrithara incerta]H22
    |    |--‘Helenella’ insolens Casey 1904P66
    |    |--M. interfossa (Carpenter 1864)P66 [=Mangelia interfossaP66, Mangilia (Clathromangilia) interfossaO27]
    |    |--M. keenae (Emerson & Radwin 1969) [=Mitrolumna keenae]BC01
    |    |--‘Mitrithara’ macphersonae Gabriel 1956P66
    |    |--‘Mitrithara’ megale Chapple 1941P66
    |    |--M. metula (Hinds 1843)BK11
    |    |--‘Mitra’ michaudi Michelotti 1847 [=Mitrolumna michaudi]P66
    |    |--M. multicostata May 1911 [=Mitrithara multicostata]P66
    |    |--‘Pleurotoma’ multigranosa Smith 1890 [=*Helenella multigranosa]P66
    |    |--‘Mitra’ olivoidea Cantraine 1835 [=*Mitrolumna olivoidea]BW80
    |    |--M. paucilirata Verco 1909 [=Mitrithara paucilirata]P66
    |    |--M. paula Verco 1909 (see below for synonymy)H22
    |    |--*Cymakra’ poncei Gardner 1937P66
    |    |--‘Mitrithara’ proles Hedley 1922P66
    |    |--‘Mitrithara (Itia) regis Powell 1937P66
    |    |--*Clinomitra’ rovasendae Bellardi 1889 [=Mitrolumna rovasendae]P66
    |    |--M. smithi Dautzenberg & Fischer 1896 [=Mitrolumna smithi]BW80
    |    |--‘Mitrithara’ sutherlandica Powell 1942P66
    |    |--M. volva Sowerbyt 1892 [=Mitrithara volva]H22
    |    `--‘Mitrithara’ waitakiensis Powell 1942P66
    |--Scrinium Hedley 1922P66
    |    |--*S. brazieri (Smith 1891)P66 [=Mitromorpha brazieriP66, Apaturris brazieriH22]
    |    |--S. blandiatum (Suter 1917) [=Mangilia blandiata]P66
    |    |--S. callimorphum (Suter 1917) [=Euthria callimorpha]P66
    |    |--S. duplicatum Powell 1944P66
    |    |--S. finlayi Powell 1942P66
    |    |--S. furtivum Hedley 1922P66
    |    |--S. gatliffi (Verco 1909)P66 [=Drillia gatliffiP66, Mangilia gatliffiH22]
    |    |--S. haroldi Powell 1944P66
    |    |--S. hemiothone (Tenison-Woods 1880) [=Columbella hemiothone]P66
    |    |--S. impendens (Verco 1909) [=Mangilia impendens]H22
    |    |--S. nanum Powell 1944P66
    |    |--S. neozelanica (Suter 1908) [=Bela neozelanica]P66
    |    |--S. ordinatum (Hutton 1877) [=Cominella ordinatis]P66
    |    |--S. stirophora (Suter 1917) [=Euthria stirophora]P66
    |    |--S. strongi Marwick 1931P66
    |    `--S. thomsoni Powell 1942P66
    |--Anarithma Iredale 1918BK11
    |    `--*A. metula (Hinds 1843) [=Clavatula metula]P66
    |--Arielia Shasky 1961BK11
    |    |--*A. (Arielia) mitriformis Shasky 1961P66 [=Mitrolumna mitriformisBC01]
    |    `--A. (Vexiariella Shuto 1983)BK11
    |--Maorimorpha Powell 1939BK11
    |    |--*M. suteri (Murdoch 1905)P66 [=Mitromorpha suteriP66, Alcira suteriF27]
    |    `--M. secunda Powell 1942P66
    |--Mitrellatoma Powell 1942BK11
    |    |--*M. angustata (Hutton 1886) [=Columbella angustata]P66
    |    `--‘Pleurotoma’ ligata Defrance 1826P66
    `--Lovellona Iredale 1917BK11
         |--*L. atramentosa (Reeve 1849) [=Conus atramentosus]P66
         |--L. micarius (Hedley 1912) [=Conus micarius]P66
         `--L. peaseana Finlay 1927P66 (see below for synonymy)

Lovellona peaseana Finlay 1927P66 [=Conus fusiformis Pease 1860 (preoc.)P66, Conella fusiformisK65, Conus parvus Pease 1868 non Lea 1833P66]

Mitromorpha Carpenter 1865BK11 [incl. Clinomitra Bellardi 1889P66, Cymakra Gardner 1937BK11, Diptychomitra Bellardi 1888BR05, Helenella Casey 1904BK11, Itia Marwick 1931BK11, Mitrithara Hedley 1922BK11, Mitrolumna Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus 1883BK11]

Mitromorpha alba (Petterd 1879)H22 [=Columbella albaC75, *Mitrithara albaC75; incl. Mitromorpha flindersi Pritchard & Gatliff 1899H22]

Mitromorpha carpenteri Glibert 1954P66 [incl. Daphnella filosa Carpenter 1864 non Columbella filosa Dujardin 1837BR17, *M. filosaP66]

Mitromorpha paula Verco 1909 [=Mitrithara paula; incl. Mitromorpha paula var. leuca Verco 1909, Mitrithara paula var. leuca]H22

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BK11] Bouchet, P., Y. I. Kantor, A. Sysoev & N. Puillandre. 2011. A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273–308.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BW80] Bouchet, P., & A. Waren. 1980. Revision of the north-east Atlantic bathyal and abyssal Turridae (Mollusca, Gastropoda). Journal of Molluscan Studies Supplement 8: 1–119.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C75] Cernohorsky, W. O. 1975. The taxonomy of some Indo-Pacific Mollusca. Part 3. With descriptions of new taxa and remarks on an Ecuadorian fossil species of Turridae. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 12: 213–234.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[H22] Hedley, C. 1922. A revision of the Australian Turridae. Records of the Australian Museum 13 (6): 213–359, pls 42–56.

[K65] Kay, E. A. 1965. Marine molluscs in the Cuming collection, British Museum (Natural History) described by William Harper Pease. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Supplement 1: 1–96, 14 pls.

[O27] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 1. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: an evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1–184, pls 1–23.

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