Mollicutes

Mycoplasma pneumoniae attaching to host epithelium, copyright Kevinjesusmontoyadelcampo.

Belongs within: Bacilli.

The Mollicutes, mycoplasmas, are parasitic bacteria lacking cell walls (Garrity & Holt 2001).

Characters (from Garrity & Holt 2001): Pleomorphic cells devoid of cell walls. Growth on agar exhibiting “fried egg” appearance. Sterols may be required for growth. Gliding motility may be present. Facultatively to obligately anaerobic. Mol% G + C of DNA low, 23–46%.

<==Mollicutes [Aphragmabacteria, Mycoplasmata, Mycoplasmatales, Tenericutes]
    |--+--+--‘Eubacterium’ biformePHK96
    |  |  `--‘Clostridium’ innocuumPHK96
    |  `--Erysipelotrichaceae [Erysipelotrichales, Erysipelotrichia]GH01
    |       |--HoldemaniaGH01
    |       `--Erysipelothrix Rosenbach 1906VP IJSEM10
    |            `--E. rhusiopathiaePHK96
    `--+--+--Acholeplasma [Acholeplasmataceae, Acholeplasmatales]PHK96
       |  |    `--A. laidlawiiJS03
       |  `--Anaeroplasmataceae [Anaeroplasmatales]PHK96
       |       |--Anaeroplasma bactoclasticumPHK96
       |       `--+--‘Clostridium’ ramosumPHK96
       |          `--Asteroleplasma anaerobiumGH01, PHK96
       `--MycoplasmataceaeGH01
            |--EperythrozoonGH01
            |--HaemobartonellaGH01
            `--MycoplasmaPHK96
                 |  i. s.: M. agassizii Brown et al. 2001JC08
                 |         M. alligatoris Brown et al. 2001JC08
                 |         M. argininiRN96
                 |         M. genitaliumHH02
                 |         M. microti Brown et al. 2001JC08
                 |         M. mycoidesPF99
                 |         M. pneumoniaeKSM06
                 |         M. pulmonisZ03
                 |--+--+--M. hominisPHK96
                 |  |  `--+--M. hyopneumoniaePHK96
                 |  |     `--M. sualviPHK96
                 |  `--+--Ureaplasma urealyticumPHK96
                 |     `--+--M. gallisepticumPHK96
                 |        `--M. pneumoniaePHK96
                 `--+--+--M. capricolumPHK96
                    |  `--M. ellychniumPHK96
                    `--EntomoplasmatalesPHK96
                         |--EntomoplasmataceaeGH01
                         |    |--EntomoplasmaGH01
                         |    `--Mesoplasma florumGH01, WK13
                         `--Spiroplasma [Spiroplasmataceae]GH01
                              |--S. apisPHK96
                              |--S. citriL86
                              `--S. melliferumBB99
Mollicutes incertae sedis:
  Candidatus PhytoplasmaJS03
    |--+--P. australienseJS03
    |  `--P. japonicumJS03
    `--+--+--P. brasilienseJS03
       |  `--+--P. aurantifoliaJS03
       |     `--P. australasiaJS03
       `--+--P. phoeniceumJS03
          `--+--P. oryzae Jung, Sawayanagi et al. 2003JS03
             `--+--P. castaneaeJS03
                `--+--P. fraxiniJS03
                   `--P. ziziphiJS03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[GH01] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[HH02] Huber, H., M. J. Hohn, R. Rachel, T. Fuchs, V. C. Wimmer & K. O. Stetter. 2002. A new phylum of Archaea represented by a nanosized hyperthermophilic symbiont. Nature 417: 63–67.

[IJSEM10] IJSEM. 2010. Validation list no. 132. List of new names and new combinations previously effectively, but not validly, published. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 60: 469–472.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[JS03] Jung, H.-Y., T. Sawayanagi, P. Wongkaew, S. Kakizawa, H. Nishigawa, W. Wei, K. Oshima, S. Miyata, M. Ugaki, T. Hibi & S. Namba. 2003. ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae’, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with rice yellow dwarf disease. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1925–1929.

[KSM06] King, R. C., W. D. Stansfield & P. K. Mulligan. 2006. A Dictionary of Genetics 7th ed. Oxford University Press.

[L86] Lindquist, E. E. 1986. The world genera of Tarsonemidae (Acari: Heterostigmata): a morphological, phylogenetic, and systematic revision, with a reclassification of family-group taxa in the Heterostigmata. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 118 (S136): 1–517.

[PF99] Philippe, H., & P. Forterre. 1999. The rooting of the universal tree of life is not reliable. Journal of Molecular Evolution 49: 509–523.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RN96] Ribeiro, V. R., E. R. Nasimento, J. L. H. Faccini, M. G.’F. Nascimento & G. B. Lignon. 1996. Mycoplasma transmission among caprines by Raillietia caprae (Mesostigmata) in Brazil. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 483–484. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[WK13] Williams, K. P., & D. P. Kelly. 2013. Proposal for a new class within the phylum Proteobacteria, Acidithiobacillia classis nov., with the type order Acidithiobacillales, and emended description of the class Gammaproteobacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63 (8): 2901–2906.

[Z03] Zeigler, D. R. 2003. Gene sequences useful for predicting relatedness of whole genomes in bacteria. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1893–1900.

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